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Mercury nitrate monohydrate

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Mercury nitrate monohydrate Basic information
Mercury nitrate monohydrate Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:79 °C(lit.)
  • Density 1.025 g/mL at 25 °C
  • vapor density 11 (vs air)
  • storage temp. Store at RT.
  • form Liquid
  • color White to off-white
  • Specific Gravity4.39
  • OdorSlight nitric acid odor
  • Water Solubility Soluble in water.
  • Sensitive Hygroscopic
  • Merck 14,5880
  • CAS DataBase Reference7783-34-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
Safety Information
MSDS
Mercury nitrate monohydrate Usage And Synthesis
  • Chemical PropertiesThe monohydrate is a white crystalline or powdery substance; density 4.3g/cm3; decomposes on heating; soluble in water and nitric acid; insoluble in alcohol.
    It is stable and hygroscopic. Mercuric nitrate is incompatible with mercuric nitrate in contact with organic materials, powdered metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, hypophosphoric acid, unsaturates, and aromatics, which react violently.
  • UsesMercury(II) nitrate is used in the preparation of other mercury compounds; in organic synthesis; and as an analytical standard for mercury.
  • PreparationMercury(II) nitrate is prepared by dissolving mercury in excess hot concentrated nitric acid. Upon evaporation of the solution, large colorless deliquescent crystals of monohydrate, Hg(NO3)2•H2O, form.
    It also is obtained by boiling a solution of mercury(I) nitrate or by the action of light on mercury(I) nitrate:
    Hg2(NO3)2 → Hg + 2HgNO3
  • ReactionsGentle heating of mercury(II) nitrate gives mercury(II) oxide evolving nitrogen and oxygen:
    Hg(NO3)2 → HgO + 2NO2 + ½ O2
    However, on strong heating, mercury nitrate decomposes to mercury metal:
    Hg(NO3)2 → Hg + 2NO2 + O2
    When excess alkali hydroxide is added to a solution of mercury(II) nitrate, a yellow precipitate of HgO is obtained.
    Addition of potassium thiocyanate solution forms a white precipitate of mercury(II) thiocyanate:
    Hg2+ + 2SCN¯ → Hg(SCN)2
    Addition of a small amount of alkali iodide to mercury(II) nitrate solution precipitates mercury(II) iodide:
    Hg2+ + 2I¯ → HgI2
    Similarly, mercury(II) cyanide precipitates upon the addition of potassium cyanide to mercury(II) nitrate solution:
    Hg2+ + 2CN¯ → Hg(CN)2
  • ToxicityMercury(II) nitrate is highly toxic by ingestion and possibly other routes of exposure. The LD50 oral for the dihydrate in mouse is 25 mg/kg.
  • Chemical PropertiesMercuric nitrate is a white to yellowish crystalline solid with an odor like nitric acid. Normally exists as the hemihydrate or the dihydrate
  • Potential ExposureMercuric nitrate is used in making other chemicals; in felt manufacture and in making mercury fulminate
  • ShippingUN1625 Mercuric nitrate, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials.
  • Purification MethodsIts solubility in H2O containing 1% HNO3 is 7.7%. Recrystallise it from a warm saturated solution of dilute HNO3 and cool to room temperature slowly to give elongated prisms. Rapid cooling gives plates. The colourless crystals should be stored in the dark. POISONOUS. [Grdenic J Chem Soc 1312 1956.]
  • IncompatibilitiesA strong oxidizer. Reacts violently with combustibles, petroleum hydrocarbons; reducing agents; aldehydes, ammonia, ketones, phosphorus. Reacts with acetylene, alcohol, phosphine, and sulfur to form shocksensitive compounds. Aqueous solution attacks most metals. Vigorous and dangerous reaction with petroleum hydrocarbons. Incompatible with organic materials; acetylene, ethanol, phosphine, sulfur, hypophosphoric acid. Inorganic mercury compounds are incompatible with acetylene, ammonia, chlorine dioxide; azides, calcium (amalgam formation), sodium carbide; lithium, rubidium, copper. Decomposes in heat or on exposure to light, producing toxic fumes (mercury, nitrogen oxides)
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