N,N-Diethyl-4-methyl-1-piperazincarboxamid Produkt Beschreibung

DIETHYLCARBAMAZINE Struktur
90-89-1
  • CAS-Nr.90-89-1
  • Bezeichnung:N,N-Diethyl-4-methyl-1-piperazincarboxamid
  • Englisch Name:DIETHYLCARBAMAZINE
  • Synonyma:Diethylcarbamazin;N,N-Diethyl-4-methyl-1-piperazincarboxamid
    84L;Cypip;rp3799;RP 3799;patonin;Banocide;Caracide;Caricide;Ethodryl;Notezine
  • CBNumber:CB9243620
  • Summenformel:C10H21N3O
  • Molgewicht:199.29
  • MOL-Datei:90-89-1.mol
N,N-Diethyl-4-methyl-1-piperazincarboxamid physikalisch-chemischer Eigenschaften
  • Schmelzpunkt: :65-67℃
  • Siedepunkt: :127-129℃ (10 Torr)
  • Dichte :1.0173 (rough estimate)
  • Brechungsindex :1.4930 (estimate)
  • storage temp.  :Sealed in dry,Room Temperature
  • pka :pKa 7.7 (Uncertain)
  • EPA chemische Informationen :Diethylcarbamazine (90-89-1)
Sicherheit
  • Toxizität :LD50 intraperitoneal in mouse: 240mg/kg

DIETHYLCARBAMAZINE Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden

  • Beschreibung Discovered in the 1940s, diethylcarbamazine (DEC) has proven to be especially effective as a filaricidal agent. The incidence of filariasis among American troops during World War II necessitated a search for drugs with an antifalarial spectrum of activity. The once-popular piperazine also was discovered during these initial screenings. Although chemically similar, the activity again helminths is quite different. Piperazine is active against nematodes, whereas DEC is active against falaria and microfalaria.
  • Originator Hetrazan,Lederle,US,1949
  • Indications Diethylcarbamazine citrate (Hetrazan) is active against several microfilaria and adult filarial worms. It interferes with the metabolism of arachidonic acid and blocks the production of prostaglandins, resulting in capillary vasoconstriction and impairment of the passage of the microfilaria. Diethylcarbamazine also increases the adherence of microfilariae to the vascular wall, platelets, and granulocytes.
    Diethylcarbamazine is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and peak blood levels are obtained in 4 hours; the drug disappears from the blood within 48 hours. The intact drug and its metabolites are excreted in the urine.
    Diethylcarbamazine is the drug of choice for certain filarial infections, such as Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Loa loa. Since diethylcarbamazine is not universally active against filarial infections, a specific diagnosis based on blood smears, biopsy samples, and a geographic history is important. Dosage should be adjusted in patients with renal impairment.
    Caution is necessary when using this agent, particularly when treating onchocerciasis.The sudden death of the microfilariae can produce mild to severe reactions within hours of drug administration. These are manifested by fever, lymphadenopathy, cutaneous swelling, leukocytosis, and intensification of any preexisting eosinophilia, edema, rashes, tachycardia, and headache. If microfilariae are present in the eye, further ocular damage may result. Other side effects are relatively mild and range from malaise, headache, and arthralgias to gastrointestinal symptoms.
  • Manufacturing Process To 50 cc of water was added 18 grams of 1-methylpiperazine dihydrochloride and 8.34 grams of sodium hydroxide. When solution had been effected the beaker was cooled to 10°C and with stirring, 4.17 grams of sodium hydroxide dissolved in 15 cc of water and 14 grams of diethyl carbamyl chloride were added simultaneously. When all had been added, the solution was extracted 3 times with ether which was then dried and filtered. The ether solution was saturated with dry hydrogen chloride. A yellow gum appeared which on trituration gave a white, hygroscopic solid which was filtered and dried in a drying pistol. The N,N-diethyl-4-methyl-1-piperazine-carboxamide hydrochloride had a melting point of 150°-155°C.
    If the compound itself is desired, the salt is dissolved in water and the solution saturated with a mild alkali such as potassium carbonate. The product is then extracted with chloroform, dried, and after removal of the chloroform, distilled.
  • Therapeutic Function Anthelmintic
  • Synthesis Reference(s) The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 13, p. 144, 1948 DOI: 10.1021/jo01159a019
    Diethylcarbamazine
  • Antimicrobial activity Useful activity is restricted to filarial worms. It is adulticidal and microfilaricidal against Loa loa. Against Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi it is predominantly microfilaricidal, but slowly kills adult worms. It kills microfilariae, but not adults, of Onchocerca volvulus.
  • Pharmazeutische Anwendungen A carbamyl derivative of piperazine formulated as the citrate. It is readily soluble in water and slightly hygroscopic.
  • Mechanism of action Although studied extensively, the mechanism of action of DEC remains unknown. Diethylcarbamazine appears to be the active form of the drug, with a very rapid onset of action (within minutes), but of interest is the fact that the drug is inactive in vitro, suggesting that activation of a cellular component is essential to the filaricidal action. Three mechanisms have been suggested. The first is involvement of blood platelets triggered by the action of filarial excretory antigens. A complex reaction is thought to occur between the drug, the antigen, and platelets. Although these authors were unable to show a direct action of the drug on the microfalaria, a more recent study showed that DEC produced morphological damage to the microfalaria. The damage consisted of the loss of the cellular sheath, exposing antigenic determinants to immune defense mechanisms. Severe damage then occurred to microfalaria organelles, leading to death. The second is inhibition of microtubule polymerization and disruption of preformed microtubules. The third is interference with arachidonic acid metabolism. Diethylcarbamazine is known to have anti-inflammatory action, which appears to involve blockage at cyclooxygenase and leukotriene A4 synthase (leukotriene synthesis). This action appears to alter vascular and cellular adhesiveness and cell activation. This latter action would suggest a possible relationship between the first and third mechanism.
  • Pharmakokinetik Oral absorption: >90%
    Cmax 200 mg: 1.5–2 mg/L after 2 h
    Plasma half-life: c. 6–12 h
    Volume of distribution: 107–371 L
    Plasma protein binding: Very low
    Like piperazine (to which it is related), diethylcarbamazine is rapidly and completely absorbed. About half the dose is excreted unchanged in the urine; the rest is metabolized and eliminated by renal and extrarenal routes.
  • Clinical Use Filariasis
    It has also been used for visceral larva migrans, but experience is limited and there is little evidence of its efficacy.
  • Nebenwirkungen In uninfected people, diethylcarbamazine has virtually no side effects, but in those with various forms of filariasis it has unpleasant effects primarily due to the death of bloodor skin-dwelling microfilariae. Severe reactions (‘Mazzotti reactions’), most frequently of the skin, occur in patients with onchocerciasis and may also be systemic with fever, headache, prostration, nausea, joint and muscle pain, vertigo, tachycardia, cough and respiratory distress, hypotension and ocular signs. In patients with L. loa who harbor very large numbers of microfilariae in their blood, neurological problems may be very severe. Cardiological damage has also been reported. In patients with W. bancrofti and B. malayi high fever occurs in the first few days after treatment. Reversible proteinuria may occur.
  • Sicherheitsprofil Poison by intraperitoneal route. Human systemic effects by ingestion: allergc dermatitis. An experimental teratogen. Mutation data reported. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx and HCl. An additive permitted in the food and drinking water of animals and/or for the treatment of food-producing animals.
  • Chemical Synthesis Diethylcarbamazine, N, N-diethyl-4-methyl-1-piperazincarboxamide (38.1.13), is made by acylating 1-methylpiperazine with diethylcarbamoylchloride.

  • Stoffwechsel The metabolism of DEC leads to the compounds shown in Figure 39.18  plus trace amounts of methylpiperazine and piperazine. Nearly all of the metabolites appear in the urine. As much as 10 to 20% of the drug is excreted unchanged. As indicated by the rapid action of the drug, it would appear that none of the metabolites are involved in the therapeutic action of DEC.
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DIETHYLCARBAMAZINE Upstream-Materialien And Downstream Produkte
Upstream-Materialien
Downstream Produkte
N,N-Diethyl-4-methyl-1-piperazincarboxamid Anbieter Lieferant Produzent Hersteller Vertrieb Händler.
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90-89-1, DIETHYLCARBAMAZINE Verwandte Suche:
  • 1-(N,N-Diethylcarbamyl)-4-methylpiperazine
  • 1-Diethylcarbamoyl-4-Methylpiperazine
  • 1-Diethylcarbamyl-4-methylpiperzine
  • 1-Methyl-4-diethylcarbamoylpiperazine
  • 1-Methyl-4-diethylcarbamylpiperazine
  • 1-piperazinecarboxamide,N,N-diethyl-4-methyl-
  • 84L
  • Banocide
  • Bitirazine
  • Caracide
  • Carbamazine
  • Carbilazine
  • Caricide
  • Cypip
  • Ditrazine base
  • ditrazinebase
  • Ethodryl
  • n,n-diethyl-4-methyl-1-piperazinecarboxamid
  • Notezine
  • R.P. 3799
  • N,N-diethyl-4-methyl-1-piperazin-4-iumcarboxamide
  • RP 3799
  • rp3799
  • Spatonin
  • TIMTEC-BB SBB008185
  • N,N-DIETHYL-4-METHYL-1-PIPERAZINECARBOXAMIDE
  • DIETHYL CARBAMAZINE
  • N,N-diethyl-4-methylpiperazine-1-carboxamide
  • 1-DIETHYLCARBANOYL-4-METHYLPIPERAZINE
  • diethlcarbamazine
  • 1-(N,N-diethylcarbamoyl)-4-methylpiperazine
  • patonin
  • N,N-Diethylcarbamazine
  • 1642-54-2 (Citrate)
  • 1-Diethylcarbamyl-4-methylpiperazine
  • 5348-97-0 (Hcl)
  • Aids007958
  • Aids-007958
  • Carbam palatabs
  • DIETHYLCARBAMAZINE USP/EP/BP
  • 90-89-1
  • C10H21N3O