Toluol Produkt Beschreibung

Toluene Struktur
108-88-3
  • CAS-Nr.108-88-3
  • Bezeichnung:Toluol
  • Englisch Name:Toluene
  • Synonyma:Toluol;Methylbenzol<BR>Toluen<BR>Phenylmethan
    TOL;cp25;HOXC6;Toluen;TOLUOL;Dracyl;TOLUNE;HHO.C8;Hox-3C;Toluolo
  • CBNumber:CB4233905
  • Summenformel:C7H8
  • Molgewicht:92.14
  • MOL-Datei:108-88-3.mol
Toluol physikalisch-chemischer Eigenschaften
  • Schmelzpunkt: :-95 °C
  • Siedepunkt: :111 °C
  • Dichte :0.866
  • Dampfdichte :3.2 (vs air)
  • Dampfdruck :22 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
  • Brechungsindex :n/D 1.496(lit.)
  • Flammpunkt: :40 °F
  • storage temp.  : 0-6°C
  • pka :40(at 25℃)
  • Aggregatzustand :Liquid
  • Farbe :Colorless
  • Wichte :0.865~0.870(20/20℃)(Ph.Eur.)
  • Geruch (Odor) :Aromatic, benzene-like odor detectable at 0.16 to 37 ppm (mean = 1.6 ppm)
  • Relative polarity :0.099
  • Explosionsgrenze :7%
  • Wasserlöslichkeit :0.5 g/L (20 ºC)
  • Merck  :14,9529
  • BRN  :635760
  • Expositionsgrenzwerte :TLV-TWA 100 ppm (~375 mg/m3) (ACGIH, NIOSH, and MSHA), 200 ppm (~750 mg/ m3) OSHA; ceiling 300 ppm, peak 500 ppm/ 15 min (OSHA); STEL 150 ppm (ACGIH).
  • CAS Datenbank :108-88-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • NIST chemische Informationen :Toluene(108-88-3)
  • EPA chemische Informationen :Benzene, methyl-(108-88-3)
Sicherheit

Toluene Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden

  • Beschreibung Toluene is a clear, colourless liquid with a sweet, benzene-like odour. Toluene occurs naturally in crude oil and in the toluene tree. It is also produced in the process of making gasoline and other fuels from crude oil and making coke from coal. Toluene is used in making paints, paint thinners, fingernail polish, lacquers, adhesives, and rubber and in some printing and leather tanning processes. Toluene is also used in the production of polymers used to make nylon, plastic soda bottles, and polyurethanes and for pharmaceuticals, dyes, cosmetic nail products, and the synthesis of organic chemicals.
    Toluene has been reported as the most commonly abused hydrocarbon solvent, primarily through ‘glue sniffing’. The common possibilities of exposure to high levels of toluene include indoor air from the use of household products such as paints, paint thinners, adhesives, synthetic fragrances, and many other sources.
  • Chemische Eigenschaften Toluene is a clear, colorless, flammable liquid with a sweet/pungent odor. It is extensively used as a solvent in different industries, i.e., rubber chemical manufacturing, drugs and pharmaceuticals, thinner for inks, paints dyes, and perfume manufacturing. It is a natural constituent of crude oil and is produced from petroleum refi ning and coke-oven operations. Toluene occurs naturally as a component of crude oil and occurs in petroleum refi ning and coke oven operations. Occupational workers associated with several kinds of activities, such as manufacturing of dyes, printing inks, painting automobile mechanics, gasoline manufacturers, shippers, and retailers, adhesives and coatings manufacturers and applicators, audio-equipment product workers, chemical industry workers, coke-oven workers, fabric manufacturers (fabric coating), sites of hazardous wastes, linoleum manufacturers, in pharmaceutical manufacturing, printing works, shoe manufacturing industry, become exposed to toluene.
  • Chemische Eigenschaften Toluene is a clear, colorless, noncorrosive liquid with a sweet, pungent, benzene-like odor. The Odor Threshold in air is variously given as 0.17 ppm, 2.9 ppm (NJ) and 8 ppm (EPA). The Odor Threshold in water is 0.04-1.0 mg/L
  • Chemische Eigenschaften Also known as methyl benezne or phenyl methane, C6H5CH3 is a flammable, toxic, colorless liquid. Insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol and ether, it is used in explosives,high-octane gasoline,and organic synthesis.
  • History Toluene is a clear, flammable, aromatic hydrocarbon liquid with a smell similar to benzene. It is also called methylbenzene, indicating that a methyl group has been added to one of benzene’s carbon atoms. Toluene was first isolated by Pierre-Joseph Pelletier (1788–1842) and Philippe Walter (1810–1847) in 1837. The name toluene comes from the South American tree Toluifera balsamum. Henri-Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville (1818–1881) isolated toluene from the tree’s gum, Tolu balsam, in 1841.
    The main source of toluene is from the catalytic reforming of naphthas during petroleum processing. During this process cycloalkanes are dehydrated, forming aromatics such as toluene and xylene along with hydrogen. Toluene can also be obtained from the pyrolysis of gasoline. It is a by-product when styrene is produced and can also be produced from coal tar, which was its main source in the first half of the 20th century.
  • Verwenden Toluene is derived from coal tar as well aspetroleum. It occurs in gasoline and manypetroleum solvents. Toluene is used to producetrinitrotoluene (TNT), toluene diisocyanate,and benzene; as an ingredient fordyes, drugs, and detergents; and as an industrialsolvent for rubbers, paints, coatings, andoils.
  • Verwenden Toluene has numerous applications in the chemical and petroleum industry, with approximately 6 million tons used annually in the United States and 16 million tons used globally. The major use of toluene is as an octane booster in gasoline. Toluene has an octane rating of 114. Toluene is one of the four principal aromatic compounds, along with benzene, xylene, and ethylbenzene, that are produced during refining to enhance gasoline's performance. Collectively, these four compounds are abbreviated as BTEX. BTEX is a major component of gasoline, forming about 18% by weight of a typical blend. Although the proportion of the aromatics is varied to produce different blends to meet geographic and seasonal requirements, toluene is one of the major components. A typical gasoline contains approximately 5% toluene by weight.
    Toluene is a primary feedstock used to produce various organic compounds. It is usedto produce diisocyanates. Isocyanates contain the functional group ?N = C = O, and diisocyanatescontain two of these. The two main diisocyanates are toluene 2,4-diisocyanate andtoluene 2,6-diisocyanate. The production of diisocyanates in North America is close to a billionpounds annually. More than 90% of toluene diisocyanate production is used for makingpolyurethanes foams. The latter are used as flexible fill in furniture, bedding, and cushions.In rigid form it is used for insulation, hard shell coatings, building materials, auto parts, androller skate wheels.
  • Vorbereitung Methode Benzene is produced from toluene through a process called hydrodealkylation. In thisprocess, toluene reacts with hydrogen in the presence of a chromium, platinum, or molybdenumcatalysts at temperatures of several hundred degrees Celsius and pressures of about50 atmospheres: C6H5CH3 + H2 → C6H6 + CH4. Toluene can also be used to producephenol, (C6H5OH), benzoic acid (C6H5COOH), and benzaldehyde (C6H5CHO). Nitratedforms of toluene produce explosive compounds; the most common of these is TNT (SeeTrinitrotoluene).
  • Definition ChEBI: The simplest member of the class toluenes consisting of a benzene core which bears a single methyl substituent.
  • Verwenden In manufacture of benzoic acid, benzaldehyde, explosives, dyes, and many other organic Compounds; as a solvent for paints, lacquers, gums, resins; thinner for inks, perfumes, dyes; in the extraction of various principles from plants; as gasoline additive.
  • ERSCHEINUNGSBILD FARBLOSE FLüSSIGKEIT MIT CHARAKTERISTISCHEM GERUCH.
  • PHYSIKALISCHE GEFAHREN Die Dämpfe mischen sich leicht mit Luft. Bildung explosionsfähiger Gemische. Fließen, Schütten o.ä. kann zu elektrostatischer Aufladung führen.
  • CHEMISCHE GEFAHREN Reagiert sehr heftig mit starken Oxidationsmitteln. Feuer- und Explosionsgefahr.
  • ARBEITSPLATZGRENZWERTE TLV: 50 ppm (als TWA); Hautresorption; Krebskategorie A4 (nicht klassifizierbar als krebserzeugend für den Menschen); BEI vorhanden; (ACGIH 2005).
    MAK: 50 ppm 190 mg/m? Spitzenbegrenzung: überschreitungsfaktor II(4); Hautresorption; Schwangerschaft: Gruppe C; (DFG 2005).
    EG Arbeitsplatz-Richtgrenzwerte: 192 mg/m? 50 ppm (als TWA); 100 ppm (als STEL); Hautresorption; (EG 2006)
  • AUFNAHMEWEGE Aufnahme in den Körper durch Inhalation, über die Haut und durch Verschlucken.
  • INHALATIONSGEFAHREN Beim Verdampfen bei 20 °C kann schnell eine gesundheitsschädliche Kontamination der Luft eintreten.
  • WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION:
    Die Substanz reizt die Augen und die Atmungsorgane. Möglich sind Auswirkungen auf das Zentralnervensystem. Verschlucken kann zur Aufnahme in der Lunge führen; Gefahr der Aspirationspneumonie. Exposition gegenüber hohen Konzentrationen kann zu Herzrhythmusstörungen und
  • WIRKUNGEN NACH WIEDERHOLTER ODER LANGZEITEXPOSITION Die Flüssigkeit entfettet die Haut. Möglich sind Auswirkungen auf das Zentralnervensystem. Exposition gegenüber der Substanz kann durch Lärmeinwirkung verursachte Hörschäden verstärken. Tierversuche zeigen, dass die Substanz möglicherweise fruchtbarkeitsschädigend oder entwicklungsschädigend wirken kann.
  • Allgemeine Beschreibung A clear colorless liquid with a characteristic aromatic odor. Flash point 40°F. Less dense than water (7.2 lb / gal) and insoluble in water. Hence floats on water. Vapors heavier than air. May be toxic by inhalation, ingestion or skin contact. Used in aviation and automotive fuels, as a solvent, and to make other chemicals.
  • R-Sätze Betriebsanweisung: R11:Leichtentzündlich.
    R38:Reizt die Haut.
    R48/20:Gesundheitsschädlich: Gefahr ernster Gesundheitsschäden bei längerer Exposition durch Einatmen.
    R63:Kann das Kind im Mutterleib möglicherweise schädigen.
    R65:Gesundheitsschädlich: kann beim Verschlucken Lungenschäden verursachen.
    R67:Dämpfe können Schläfrigkeit und Benommenheit verursachen.
    R39/23/24/25:Giftig: ernste Gefahr irreversiblen Schadens durch Einatmen, Berührung mit der Haut und durch Verschlucken.
    R23/24/25:Giftig beim Einatmen, Verschlucken und Berührung mit der Haut.
  • Air & Water Reaktionen Highly flammable. Insoluble in water.
  • Reaktivität anzeigen Toluene reacts vigorously with allyl chloride or other alkyl halides even at minus 70° C in the presence of ethyl aluminum dichloride or ethyl aluminum sesquichloride. Explosions have been reported [NFPA 491M 1991]. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. When added to a tank of sulfur dichloride, the tank over pressurized and ruptured in a reaction thought to be catalyzed by iron or iron(III) chloride [Chem. Eng. News, 1988, 66(32), 2].
  • S-Sätze Betriebsanweisung: S36/37:Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzhandschuhe und Schutzkleidung tragen.
    S46:Bei Verschlucken sofort ärztlichen Rat einholen und Verpackung oder Etikett vorzeigen.
    S62:Bei Verschlucken kein Erbrechen herbeiführen. Sofort ärztlichen Rat einholen und Verpackung oder dieses Etikett vorzeigen.
    S45:Bei Unfall oder Unwohlsein sofort Arzt zuziehen (wenn möglich, dieses Etikett vorzeigen).
  • Hazard Flammable, dangerous fire risk. Explosive limits in air 1.27–7%. Toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin absorption. Visual impairment, female reproductive effects, and pregnancy loss. Questionable carcinogen.
  • Health Hazard Exposures to toluene cause adverse health effects to animals and humans. The symptoms of toxicity and poisoning include, but are not limited to, mild irritation to the skin, headache, nausea, and effects on the CNS. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of toluene causes disturbances in vision, dizziness, nausea, CNS depression, paresthesia, and sudden collapse. The acute oral LD50 value of toluene in laboratory rats has been reported as 636–7300 mg/kg. Exposure to toluene has been reported to cause rapid and severe corneal damage and conjunctiva infl ammation. The acute dermal LD50 in rabbits was found to be between 1200 and 1400 mg/kg.
  • Health Hazard The acute toxicity of toluene is low. Toluene may cause eye, skin, and respiratory tract irritation. Short-term exposure to high concentrations of toluene (e.g., 600 ppm) may produce fatigue, dizziness, headaches, loss of coordination, nausea, and stupor; 10,000 ppm may cause death from respiratory failure. Ingestion of toluene may cause nausea and vomiting and central nervous system depression. Contact of liquid toluene with the eyes causes temporary irritation. Toluene is a skin irritant and may cause redness and pain when trapped beneath clothing or shoes; prolonged or repeated contact with toluene may result in dry and cracked skin. Because of its odor and irritant effects, toluene is regarded as having good warning properties.
    The chronic effects of exposure to toluene are much less severe than those of benzene. No carcinogenic effects were reported in animal studies. Equivocal results were obtained in studies to determine developmental effects in animals. Toluene was not observed to be mutagenic in standard studies.
  • Health Hazard The acute toxicity of toluene is similar to thatof benzene. The exposure routes are inhalation,ingestion, and absorption through theskin; and the organs affected from its exposureare the central nervous system, liver,kidneys, and skin. At high concentrations it is a narcotic. In humans, acute exposure canproduce excitement, euphoria, hallucination,distorted perceptions, confusion, headache,and dizziness. Such effects may be perceptibleat an exposure level of 200 ppm in air.Higher concentrations can produce depression,drowsiness, and stupor. Inhalation of10,000 ppm may cause death to humans fromrespiratory failure.
    Toluene is metabolized to benzoic acidand finally, to hippuric acid and benzoylglucuronide.The latter two are excreted in urinealong with small amounts of cresols, formedby direct hydroxylation of toluene. Chronicexposure may cause some accumulation oftoluene in fatty tissues, which may be eliminatedover a period of time. The chroniceffects of toluene are much less severe to benzene.It is not known to cause bone marrowdepression or anemia. Animal tests showedno carcinogenic effects.
  • Health Hazard Vapors irritate eyes and upper respiratory tract; cause dizziness, headache, anesthesia, respiratory arrest. Liquid irritates eyes and causes drying of skin. If aspirated, causes coughing, gagging, distress, and rapidly developing pulmonary edema. If ingested causes vomiting, griping, diarrhea, depressed respiration.
  • Brandgefahr Behavior in Fire: Vapor is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back.
  • Brandgefahr Flash Point (°F): 40 ℃, 55 ℃; Flammable Limits in Air (%): 1.27- 7.0; Fire Extinguishing Agents: Carbon dioxide or dry chemical for small fire; ordinary foam for large fires; Fire Extinguishing Agents Not To Be Used: Water may be ineffective; Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Not pertinent; Behavior in Fire: Vapors are heavier than air and may travel considerable distances to a source of ignition and flash back; Ignition Temperature (°F): 997; Electrical Hazard: Class I, Group D; Burning Rate: 5.7 mm/min.
  • Brandgefahr Toluene is a flammable liquid (NFPA rating = 3), and its vapor can travel a considerable distance to an ignition source and "flash back." Toluene vapor forms explosive mixtures with air at concentrations of 1.4 to 6.7% (by volume). Hazardous gases produced in fire include carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide and dry chemical extinguishers should be used to fight toluene fires.
  • Aussehen Eigenschaften C7H8; Methylbenzol, Toluen, Benzylwasserstoff. Farblose Flüssigkeit mit charakteristischem Geruch.
  • Chemische Reaktivität Reactivity with Water No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reactions; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.
  • Gefahren für Mensch und Umwelt Gesundheitsschädlich beim Einatmen. Reizt die Augen, Atmungsorgane und die Haut. Wird über die Haut aufgenommen. Aufnahme grösserer Mengen führt zu Rausch, Krämpfen bis zur Bewusstlosigkeit.
    Nicht stark erhitzen. Nicht mit Halogen-Halogenverbindungen, Stickstoffoxiden, Salpetersäure, Uranhexafluorid, organischen Nitroverbindungen, Oxidationsmittel und Schwefel in der Hitze in Berührung bringen.
    Leichtentzündlich.
    LD50 (oral, Ratte): 5000 mg/kg
  • Schutzmaßnahmen und Verhaltensregeln Schutzhandschuhe als kurzzeitiger Spritzschutz.
  • Verhalten im Gefahrfall Persönliche Maßnahmen: Dämpfe nicht einatmen.
    Mit flüssigkeitsbindendem Material aufnehmen. Der Entsorgung zuführen. Nachreinigen.
    Kohlendioxid, Pulver, Schaum.
    Mit Luft Bildung explosionsfähiger Gemische. Dämpfe schwerer als Luft.
  • Erste Hilfe Nach Hautkontakt: Mit reichlich Wasser abwaschen.
    Nach Augenkontakt: Mit reichlich Wasser bei geöffnetem Lidspalt mindestens 15 Minuten ausspülen. Sofort Augenarzt hinzuziehen.
    Nach Einatmen: Frischluft. Arzt hinzuziehen.
    Nach Verschlucken: Wasser trinken. Paraffinöl (3 ml/kg) und Natriumsulfat (1 Esslöffel auf 250 ml Wasser) geben. Sofort Arzt hinzuziehen.
    Nach Kleidungskontakt: Kontaminierte Kleidung sofort entfernen.
    Ersthelfer: siehe gesonderten Anschlag

  • Sachgerechte Entsorgung Als halogenfreie, organische Lösemittelabfälle.
  • Sicherheitsprofil Poison by intraperitoneal route. Moderately toxic by intravenous and subcutaneous routes. Mddly toxic by inhalation. An experimental teratogen. Human systemic effects by inhalation: CNS recordtng changes, hallucinations or distorted perceptions, motor activity changes, antipsychotic, psychophysiological test changes, and bone marrow changes. Experimental reproductive effects. Mutation data reported. A human eye irritant. An experimental skin and severe eye irritant. Toluene is derived from coal tar, and commercial grades usually contain small amounts of benzene as an impurity. Inhalation of 200 ppm of toluene for 8 hours may cause impairment of coordtnation and reaction time; with higher concentrations (up to 800 ppm) these effects are increased and are observed in a shorter time. In the few cases of acute toluene poisoning reported, the effect has been that of a narcotic, the workman passing through a stage of intoxication into one of coma. Recovery following removal from exposure has been the rule. An occasional report of chronic poisoning describes an anemia and leukopenia, with biopsy showing a bone marrow hypoplasia. These effects, however, are less common in people working with toluene, and they are not as severe. At 200-500 ppm, headache, nausea, eye irritation, loss of appetite, a bad taste, lassitude, impairment of coordination and reaction time are reported, but are not usually accompanied by any laboratory or physical findings of significance. With higher concentrations, the above complaints are increased and in addition, anemia, leukopenia, and enlarged liver may be found in rare cases. A common air contaminant, emitted from modern building materials - (CENEAR 69,22,91). Used in production of drugs of abuse. Flammable liquid. A very dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat, flame, or oxidizers. Explosive in the form of vapor when exposed to heat or flame. Explosive reaction with 1,3-dtchloro-5,5-dimethyl-2,4- imidazolididione, dinitrogen tetraoxide, concentrated nitric acid, H2SO4 + HNO3, N2O4, AgClO4, BrF3, UF6, sulfur dichloride. Forms an explosive mixture with tetranitromethane. Can react vigorously with oxidtzing materials. To fight fire, use foam, CO2, dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.
  • mögliche Exposition Toluene is used as an industrial chemical, chemical intermediate; solvent, and emulsifier; may be encountered in the manufacture of benzene. It is also used as a chemical feed for toluene diisocyanate, phenol, benzyl and benzoyl derivatives; benzoic acid; toluene sulfonates; nitrotoluenes, vinyltoluene, and saccharin; as a solvent for paints and coatings; or as a component of automobile and aviation fuels.
  • Erste Hilfe If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit.
  • Lager toluene should be used only in areas free of ignition sources, and quantities greater than 1 liter should be stored in tightly sealed metal containers in areas separate from oxidizers.
  • Versand/Shipping UN1294 Toluene, Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3-Flammable liquid.
  • läuterung methode Dry toluene with CaCl2, CaH2 or CaSO4, and dry further by standing with sodium, P2O5 or CaH2. It can be fractionally distilled from sodium or P2O5. Unless specially purified, toluene is likely to be contaminated with methylthiophenes and other sulfur-containing impurities. These can be removed by shaking with conc H2SO4, but the temperature must be kept below 30o if sulfonation of toluene is to be avoided. A typical procedure consists of shaking toluene twice with cold conc H2SO4 (100mL of acid per L), once with water, once with aqueous 5% NaHCO3 or NaOH, again with H2O, then drying successively with CaSO4 and P2O5, with final distillation from P2O5 or over LiAlH4 after refluxing for 30minutes. Alternatively, the treatment with NaHCO3 can be replaced by boiling under reflux with 1% sodium amalgam. Sulfur compounds can also be removed by prolonged shaking of the toluene with mercury, or by two distillations from AlCl3, the distillate then being washed with water, dried with K2CO3 and stored with sodium wire. Other purification procedures include refluxing and distillation of sodium dried toluene from diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, and from SnCl2 (to ensure freedom from peroxides). It has also been co-distilled with 10% by volume of ethyl methyl ketone, and again fractionally distilled. [Brown & Pearsall J Am Chem Soc 74 191 1952.] For removal of carbonyl impurities see *benzene. Toluene has been purified by distillation under nitrogen in the presence of sodium benzophenone ketyl. Toluene has also been dried with MgSO4, after the sulfur impurities have been removed, and then fractionally distilled from P2O5 and stored in the dark [Tabushi et al. J Am Chem Soc 107 4465 1985]. Toluene can be purified by passage through a tightly packed column of Fuller's earth. Rapid purification: Alumina, CaH2 and 4A molecular sieves (3% w/v) may be used to dry toluene (6hours stirring and standing). Then the toluene is distilled, discarding the first 5% of distillate, and is stored over molecular sieves (3A, 4A) or Na wire. [Beilstein 5 H 280, 5 I 144, 5 II 209, 5 III 651, 5 IV 766.]
  • Inkompatibilitäten Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides. Violent reaction with mixtures of nitric and sulfuric acid.
  • Flammability and Explosibility Toluene is a flammable liquid (NFPA rating = 3), and its vapor can travel a considerable distance to an ignition source and "flash back." Toluene vapor forms explosive mixtures with air at concentrations of 1.4 to 6.7% (by volume). Hazardous gases produced in fire include carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide and dry chemical extinguishers should be used to fight toluene fires.
  • Waste disposal Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal.
Toluene Upstream-Materialien And Downstream Produkte
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108-88-3, Toluene Verwandte Suche:
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