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7440-23-5

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Identification

Name
Sodium
CAS
7440-23-5
EINECS(EC#)
231-132-9
Molecular Formula
Na
MDL Number
MFCD00085307
Molecular Weight
22.99
MOL File
7440-23-5.mol

Chemical Properties

Definition
Metallic element, atomic number 11, group IA of periodic table, aw 22.98977, valence = 1, no stable isotopes but several radioactive forms, extremely reactive.
Appearance
light, soft silver metal, readily tarnishing in air.
Appearance
Sodium is a soft silvery white metallic element. Pyrophoric solid or molten liquid. Odorless
Appearance
Soft, silver-white solid oxidizing rapidly in air; waxlike at room temperature, brittle at low temperatures. Store in airtight containers or in naph- tha or similar liquid that does not contain water or free oxygen. Decomposes water on contact, with evolution of hydrogen to form sodium hydroxide; insoluble in benzene, kerosene, and naphtha. Has excellent elec- trical conductivity and high heat-absorbing capac- ity.
mp 
97.8 °C(lit.)

bp 
883 °C(lit.)

density 
1.04 g/mL at 20 °C

vapor pressure 
1 mm Hg ( 440 °C)

Fp 
128 °F

storage temp. 
water-free area
solubility 
H2O: soluble

form 
pieces (large)

Stability:
Reacts violently with water, liberating and possibly igniting hydrogen. Flammable solid. Incompatible with water, strong oxidizing agents. Do not store near oxidants. Store under oil, or dry inert gas. Air sensitive.
Water Solubility 
REACTS
Sensitive 
Air & Moisture Sensitive
Merck 
14,8570
History
Long recognized in compounds, sodium was first isolated by Davy in 1807 by electrolysis of caustic soda. Sodium is present in fair abundance in the sun and stars. The D lines of sodium are among the most prominent in the solar spectrum. Sodium is the sixth most abundant element on earth, comprising about 2.6% of the Earth’s crust; it is the most abundant of the alkali group of metals of which it is a member. The most common compound is sodium chloride, but it occurs in many other minerals, such as soda niter, cryolite, amphibole, zeolite, sodalite, etc. It is a very reactive element and is never found free in nature. It is now obtained commercially by the electrolysis of absolutely dry fused sodium chloride. This method is much cheaper than that of electrolyzing sodium hydroxide, as was used several years ago. Sodium is a soft, bright, silvery metal that floats on water, decomposing it with the evolution of hydrogen and the formation of the hydroxide. It may or may not ignite spontaneously on water, depending on the amount of oxide and metal exposed to the water. It normally does not ignite in air at temperatures below 115°C. Sodium should be handled with respect, as it can be dangerous when improperly handled. Metallic sodium is vital in the manufacture of sodamide and esters, and in the preparation of organic compounds. The metal may be used to improve the structure of certain alloys, to descale metal, to purify molten metals, and as a heat transfer agent. An alloy of sodium with potassium, NaK, is also an important heat transfer agent. Sodium compounds are important to the paper, glass, soap, textile, petroleum, chemical, and metal industries. Soap is generally a sodium salt of certain fatty acids. The importance of common salt to animal nutrition has been recognized since prehistoric times. Among the many compounds that are of the greatest industrial importance are common salt (NaCl), soda ash (Na2CO3), baking soda (NaHCO3), caustic soda (NaOH), Chile saltpeter (NaNO3), diand tri-sodium phosphates, sodium thiosulfate (hypo, Na2S2O3 · 5H2O), and borax (Na2B4O7 · 10H2O). Seventeen isotopes of sodium are recognized. Metallic sodium is priced at about $575/kg (99.95%). On a volume basis, it is the cheapest of all metals. Sodium metal should be handled with great care. It should be kept in an inert atmosphere and contact with water and other substances with which sodium reacts should be avoided.
Uses
Sodium is a metal element that performs bodily functions.
Uses
This soft silvery metal occurring as chlorine in seawater was first isolated as an element by Humphry Davy in 1807. Sodium is one of the essential elements required by living organisms and it is highly reactive oxidizing in air and reacting with water. Sodium chloride was the first halide to be combined with silver for photographic purposes. Many of the sodium compounds were also used in gold toning baths. Some of them are included here.
CAS DataBase Reference
7440-23-5(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Sodium(7440-23-5)
EPA Substance Registry System
7440-23-5(EPA Substance)

Safety Data

Hazard Codes 
C,F,T
Risk Statements 
R34:Causes burns.
R14/15:Reacts violently with water, liberating extremely flammable gases .
R45:May cause cancer.
Safety Statements 
S26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice .
S8:Keep container dry .
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible) .
S43:In case of fire, use ... (indicate in the space the precise type of fire-fighting equipment. If water increases the risk add-Never use water) .
S53:Avoid exposure-obtain special instruction before use .
RIDADR 
UN 3264 8/PG 3

WGK Germany 
1

RTECS 
VY0686000

HazardClass 
4.3
PackingGroup 
I
HS Code 
31025000
Safety Profile
Metahc sodtum reacts exothermally with the moisture of body or tissue surfaces, causing thermal and chemical burns. Sodium in elemental form is highly reactive. Sodium reacts violently with water to form sodium hydroxide. A very dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat and moisture. Under the appropriate condttions, it can react violently with moisture, air, ALBr3, dcl3, AlF3, NH4 chlorocuprate, NH4NO3, SbBr3, SbCl3, SbI3, AsCl3, Ash, Bil3r3, BiCl3, BiI3, Biz03, BBr3, bromoazide, Con, CO + NH3, cCl4, Cl2, ClF3, CrCl4, Cr03, CoBr, CoCl, CuCl2, CuO,FeBrs, FeCL, FeBr2, FeCl2, FeI2, hydrazine hydrate, H202, H2S, HCl, HF, F2, 1,2dichloroethylene, dichloromethane, Brz, hydroxylamine, iodine, iodine monochloride, iodine pentafluoride, lead oxide, maleic anhydride, manganous chloride, mercuric bromide, mercuric chloride, mercuric fluoride, mercuric iodide, mercurous chloride, mercurous oxide, methyl chloride, molybdenum trioxide, monoammonium phosphate, nitric acid, nitrogen peroxide, nitrosyl fluoride, nitrous oxide, phosgene, phosphorus, phosphorus pentafluoride, phosphorus pentoxide, phosphorus tribromide, phosphorus trichloride, phosphoryl chloride, potassium oxides, potassium ozonide, potassium superoxide, selenium, silicon tetrachloride, silver bromide, silver chloride, silver fluoride, silver iodide, sodium peroxide, stannic chloride, stannic iodide with sulfur, stannic oxide, stannous chloride, sulfur, sulfur dibromide, sulfur dichloride, sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid, tellurium, tetrachloroethane, thallous bromide, thiophosphoryl bromide, trichlorethylene, vanadium pentachloride, vanadyl chloride, zinc bromide, any oxidizing material. Decomposes moisture to evolve hydrogen and heat. Reacts exothermally with halogens, acids, and halogenated hydrocarbons. flammable in air. Can be safely stored under liquid hydrocarbons. Dangerous explosion hazard when exposed to moisture in any form!! Keep away from water at all times!! When heated in air it emits toxic fumes of sodium oxide. Reacts with water or steam to produce heat, hydrogen, and flammable vapors. Can react vigorously to explosively with oxidizing materials. To fight fEe, use soda ash, dry sodium chloride, or graphite, in order of preference. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NazO. See also SODIUM HYDROXIDE and HYDROGEN. Heated sodium is spontaneously
Hazardous Substances Data
7440-23-5(Hazardous Substances Data)

Raw materials And Preparation Products

Hazard Information

General Description
A silvery soft metal that becomes grayish white upon exposure to air. Shipped as a solid or molten liquid. Burns violently with explosions that may spatter the material. Used for making gasoline additives, electric power cable, SODIUM(7440-23-5) lamps, other chemicals.
Reactivity Profile
SODIUM is a powerful reducing agent. Reacts with incandescence with boron trifluoride [Merck 11th ed. 1989]. Reacts explosively with maleic anhydride [Chem Safety Data Sheet SD-88 1962; Chem. Haz. Info. Series C-71 1960]. Explodes on contact with bromoazide. Mixtures with any of the following produce a strong explosion on impact: aluminum bromide, aluminum chloride, aluminum fluoride, ammonium chloride, antimony(III) bromide, antimony(III) chloride, antimony(III) iodide, arsenic(III) chloride, arsenic(III) iodide, bismuth(III) bromide, bismuth(III) chloride, bismuth(III) iodide, boron tribromide, carbon tetrachloride, chromium(IV) chloride, cobalt(II) bromide, cobalt(II) chloride, copper(II) chloride, iron(II) chloride, iron(III) bromide, iron(II) iodide, iodine bromide, manganese(II) chloride, mercury(II) bromide, mercury(II) chloride, mercury(II) fluoride, mercury(II) iodide, mercury(I) chloride, silicon tetrachloride, silver fluoride, tin(IV) chloride, tin(IV) iodide (with sulfur), tin(II) chloride, sulfur dibromide, sulfur dichloride, thallium(I) bromide, vanadium pentachloride, phosphorus pentachloride, phosphorus tribromide, and zinc bromide [Mellor 2 Supp. 2:497 1961]. Reacts with ammonium nitrate to form a yellow explosive substance, thought to be disodium nitrite [Mellor 8: Supp. 1 546 1964]. Reduces heated bismuth(III) oxide to the metal; the reaction is accompanied by incandescence [Mellor 9:649 1946-47]. Reacts, if finely divided, with bromine with luminescence. Burns spontaneously in moist chlorine. Reacts at room temperature with iodine [Mellor 2 Supp. 1:848 1956]. Reacts explosively with Dry Ice if the two are brought together by impact [Mellor 2 Supp. 2:468 1961]. Forms explosive mixtures with chlorinated hydrocarbons [Chem. Eng. News 26:2604 1948]. Explodes on contact with hydrochloric acid [Mellor 2:469 1946-47]. Explodes with aqueous hydrofluoric acid [Mellor 2:469 1946-47]. Ignites spontaneously in contact with dilute nitric acid [Mellor 2:470 1946-47]. Reacts with dilute sulfuric acid with explosive violence [Mellor 2:470 1946-47]. Sodium ignites on contact with hydroxylamine. (Mellor, 1940, Vol. 8, 292.)
Air & Water Reactions
May ignite spontaneously in air. Reacts violently with water to give sodium hydroxide and hydrogen, which ignites spontaneously [Merck, 11th ed. 1989)]. The ignition temperature of sodium in air depends on the area of surface exposed: vapor ignites at room temperature; droplets at about 250°F; an agitated pool at 400°F. In the absence of moisture and hydrogen, the reaction is insignificant [Mellor 2 Supp. 2:440 1961].
Hazard
Severe fire risk in contact with water in any form, ignites spontaneously in dry air when heated; to extinguish fires use dry soda ash, salt, or lime. Forms strong caustic irritant to tissue.
Health Hazard
Severe burns caused by burning metal or by caustic soda formed by reaction with moisture on skin.
Potential Exposure
A potential danger to those involved in tetra-alkyl lead manufacture using lead-sodium alloy as a reactant; those using sodium as a liquid metal coolant, as a catalyst, or in the manufacture of sodium hydride, borohydride, or peroxide.
First aid
If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 30 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. Wipe the chemical off the skin with a dry cloth. Then quickly remove contaminated clothing. Immediately wash area with large amounts of water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit. Medical observation is recommended for 24 to 48 hours after breathing overexposure, as pulmonary edema may be delayed. As first aid for pulmonary edema, a doctor or authorized paramedic may consider administering a drug or other inhalation therapy.
Fire Hazard
Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Fumes of burning Na are highly irritating to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes.
Shipping
UN1428 Sodium, Hazard Class: 4.3; Labels: 4.3-Dangerous when wet material. Note: Finely divided sodium is pyrophoric.
Incompatibilities
A strong reducing agent. A dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat and moisture. Violent reaction with water, forming NaOH. Violent reaction with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides. halogenated hydrocarbons; phosphorus and phosphorus compounds; sulfur and sulfur compounds; and many other chemicals.
Waste Disposal
Incineration with absorption of oxide fumes.

Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)

msds information
sodium(7440-23-5).msds

Questions And Answer

Description
Sodium was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1807 by electrolysis of caustic soda. In the following year, Gay Lussac and Thenard obtained metallic sodium by chemical reduction of caustic soda with iron at elevated temperatures. Deville, in 1854, prepared the metal by reduction of sodium carbonate and lime with charcoal at a temperature above the boiling point of sodium. Castner, in 1886, improved the chemical reduction process preparing the metal by heating sodium hydroxide with iron carbide at high temperature. Five years later he patented a process based on electrolytic reduction of sodium hydroxide. The first major commercial plant was set up in 1921 with the introduction of Downs cell.
The element derived its name from the Latin word sodanum meaning “headache remedy.” Its symbol Na was derived from the Latin word, natrium.
Sodium
Sodium is the sixth most abundant element on earth. It comprises about 2.6% weight of the earth’s crust. Its salt, sodium chloride, is the major component of seawater. The concentration of sodium in seawater is 1.08%. As a very reactive element, sodium is never found in free elemental form. It occurs in nature in many minerals such as cryolite, amphibole, zeolite, sodalite, and soda niter. Sodium chloride (NaCl) is the most common salt of sodium. Some other important salts are caustic soda (NaOH), soda ash (Na2CO3), baking soda (NaHCO3), Chile saltpeter (NaNO3), borax (Na2B4O7•10H2O), sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3), sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), and sodium phosphates.
Uses
Metallic sodium is a strong reducing agent, used in many organic syntheses. It is used in the manufacture of sodamide, sodium peroxide, and esters. Other uses are in purifying molten metals, to descale metal, to improve structure of certain alloys, and as a heat transfer agent, for example, in nuclear reactors. Sodium is useful in producing other metals, such as titanium. It is used in sodium vapor lamps in small amounts. Sodium wire is used to remove traces of water from organic solvents.
Production Methods
Sodium metal is produced by both electrolytic and chemical reduction processes. All commercial processes employed today are based on electrolytic methods. Such processes are in wide use since Davy prepared the metal the first time in 1807.
There are two electrolytic methods that are of major importance. One involves the electrolysis of fused sodium chloride using the Downs cell. This method currently is most prevalent. The Downs cell consists of a steel cell with brick lining containing the fused bath. The multiple electrode arrangement consists of four cylindrical graphite anodes that project upward from the base of the cell. Each anode is surrounded by a diaphragm of iron gauge and a steel cathode.
Fused sodium chloride is electrolyzed at bath temperature varying between 565 to 600°C at a cell voltage of 5.7 to 7 V and the cell current varying from 25 to 35 kA. The cathode current density is mostly about 9.8 kA/m2. Often calcium chloride is added to sodium chloride in the cell bath to lower its melting point. Calcium is largely removed from sodium by filtration at about 110°C. Other electrolyte compositions have been used in which calcium is partially or fully replaced. The cell feed must be free of sulfate and other impurities.
Electrolysis of fused sodium hydroxide has been achieved successfully with a Castner cell. The Castner cell was used in commercial production prior to introduction of Downs cell. The cell is operated at a bath temperature 320 ± 10°C, at 9.0 ± 0.5 amp current and a voltage of 4.3 to 5.0 V. The cathode current density is about 10.9 kA/m2. The cell consists of a copper cathode and a nickel anode and a cylindrical iron-gauge diaphragm placed between the electrodes. The cell reactions are as follows:
cathode: 4Na+ + 4e¯ → 4Na
SODIUM 847anode: 4OH¯ – 4e¯ → 2H2O + O2
Water generated at the anode diffuses through the diaphragm and goes to the cathode, reacting with sodium to form sodium hydroxide.
2H2O + 2Na → 2NaOH + H2
The overall change may be represented as:
2NaOH → 2Na + H2 + O2
Because water is reacting with sodium produced at the cathode, the yield of sodium is reduced almost by 50%. Lesser yield is the major disadvantage of the Castner process. At present, this process is not used commercially.
Thermal reduction processes are not being practiced anywhere in the world at present for large-scale production of sodium. Such methods, however, can be conveniently adapted for laboratory preparation of metallic sodium. Sodium can be prepared by thermal reduction of its hydroxide, carbonate, or chloride at elevated temperatures. These salts are heated with carbon, calcium carbide, iron carbide, ferrosilicon, or other reducing agents at temperatures above 800°C under vacuum:
6NaOH + 2C → 2Na + 2Na2CO3 + 3H2
Na2CO3 + 2C → 2Na + 3CO
2NaCl + CaC2 → 2Na + CaCl2 + 2C

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