Polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN), a substance derived from Oncorhynchus mykiss (Salmon trout), is a combination of purine and phosphodiester bonds constituting a pyrimidine nucleotide monomer. The compounds hold a mixture of deoxyribonucleotides polymers with chain lengths ranging between 50 and 2000 bp. PDRN is able to stimulate VEGF production during pathological conditions of low tissue perfusion. It likely acts through the stimulation of A(2A) receptors. In a previous study, PDRN accelerated wound healing and improved angiogenesis by increasing the synthesis of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) binding to adenosine A2 receptors. It also improved blood supply and perfusion to the wound. Inadequate perfusion is an important factor in impaired wound healing. In a previous study, PDRN improved angiogenesis in patients with peripheral artery disease, diabetic ulcers, and pressure ulcers. In addition, a PDRN injection represents a safe option for such patients with no side effects. The Effect of Polydeoxyribonucleotide on Chronic Non-healing Wound of an Amputee: A Case Report
Polydeoxyribonucleotide(PDRN) is a proprietary and registered DNA derived drug. It is a mixture of deoxyribonucleotides with molecular weights between 50 and 1,500 KDa and it is derived from Oncorhynchus mykiss (Salmon trout) or Oncorhynchus keta(Chum Salmon) sperm DNA. The most represented molecular weight is 80–200 KDa, with a peak of the Gaussian distribution at 132 KDa. PDRN has a higher molecular weight compared to defibrotide (16.5 ± 2.5 KDa) (Guglielmelli et al., 2012;Richardson et al., 2013). Furthermore, defibrotide is derived from the porcine intestinal mucosal DNA (Table 1). PDRN is extracted and purified at high temperature, a procedure that allows to recover a >95% pure active substance with inactivated proteins and peptides. This latter guarantees the safety of the product and the absolute lack of any immunological side effect. Indeed, the source of raw material (cells vs. organs) is of particular importance: spermatozoa are the most appropriate cells to provide highly purified DNA without risk of impurity such as peptides, proteins and lipids which can remain from the somatic cells. Pharmacological Activity and Clinical Use of PDRN
Polydeoxyribonucleotides(PDRN)is known in the clinical field for its regenerative properties. This action is partially related to the stimulation of the purinergic system through adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs). Recently, the topical anti-inflammatory effects of PDRN have aroused much interest, with a growing body of research supporting its use for the management of several inflammatory states.