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Bromochloromethane

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Bromochloromethane Basic information
Bromochloromethane Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:−88 °C(lit.)
  • Boiling point:68 °C(lit.)
  • Density 1.991 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
  • vapor density 4.5 (vs air)
  • vapor pressure 117 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
  • refractive index n20/D 1.482(lit.)
  • Flash point:11 °C
  • storage temp. 2-8°C
  • solubility Soluble in acetone, alcohol, benzene, ether (Weast, 1986), and many other solvents, particularly chlorinated hydrocarbons.
  • form neat
  • Specific Gravity1.991
  • Water Solubility 9 g/L (20 ºC)
  • BRN 1730801
  • Henry's Law Constant(x 10-3 atm?m3/mol): 1.44 at 25 °C (approximate - calculated from water solubility and vapor pressure)
  • Exposure limitsNIOSH REL: TWA 200 ppm (1,050 mg/m3), IDLH 2,000 ppm; OSHA PEL: TWA 200 ppm; ACGIH TLV: TWA 200 ppm (adopted)
  • Stability:Stable, but may discolour in light. Incompatible with aluminium, magnesium, zinc, calcium, strong oxidizing agents.
  • CAS DataBase Reference74-97-5(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • NIST Chemistry ReferenceMethane, bromochloro-(74-97-5)
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemHalon 1011 (74-97-5)
Safety Information
MSDS
Bromochloromethane Usage And Synthesis
  • Chemical Propertieswhite to light yellow crystal powder
  • Chemical PropertiesChlorobromomethane is a clear, colorless, to pale-yellow liquid with a chloroform-like odor
  • Physical propertiesClear, colorless liquid with a sweet, chloroform-like odor
  • UsesFire fighting agent
  • UsesBromochloromethane is used primarily as an extinguishing agent due to its oxygen-depleting properties.
  • DefinitionChEBI: A one-carbon compound substituted by a chloro and a bromo group.
  • General DescriptionA clear colorless liquid with a sweet chloroform-like odor. Denser than water (density 1.991 g / cm3) and insoluble in water. Hence sinks in water. Boiling point 68°C. Vapors may cause illness if inhaled. Nonflammable. When exposed to high temperatures may emit toxic fumes. Used as a fire extinguishing agent.
  • Air & Water ReactionsInsoluble in water.
  • Reactivity ProfileBromochloromethane is sensitive to light (may discolor). Incompatible with strong bases and strong oxidizing agents. Also incompatible with active metals, calcium, aluminum, magnesium, zinc and their alloys. Attacks some forms of plastics, rubber and coatings. .
  • HazardBy inhalation.
  • Health HazardToxic by ingestion. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. Exposure in an enclosed area may be very harmful. Contact may irritate or burn skin and eyes. Fire may produce irritating and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.
  • Fire HazardSome of these materials may burn, but none ignite readily. Most vapors are heavier than air. Air/vapor mixtures may explode when ignited. Container may explode in heat of fire.
  • Safety ProfileMildly toxic by ingestion and inhalation. Mutation data reported. This material has a narcotic action of moderate intensity, although of prolonged duration. Animals exposed for several weeks to 1000 pprn had blood bromide levels as high as 350 mgl100 g. Therefore, until further data are available, it should be considered at least as toxic as carbon tetrachloride and more than minimal exposure to its vapors should be avoided. Dangerous; when heated to decomposition it emits highly toxic fumes of Brand Cl-. See also BROMIDES and CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS, ALIPHATIC.
  • Potential ExposureThis compound is used in brominated flame retardants; a fire-extinguishing agent; and in organic synthesis
  • CarcinogenicityThe U.S. EPA classification is D (not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity). Bromochloromethane is structurally similar to dichloromethane (methylene chloride), which is classified B2 (probable human carcinogen). The classification is based on the lack of data regarding the carcinogenicity of bromochloromethane in humans or animals; however, there are data indicative of genotoxic effects and structural relationships to halogenated methanes classified as B2 (probable human carcinogens).
  • SourceNo MCLGs or MCLs have been proposed, however, a DWEL of 0.5 mg/L was recommended (U.S. EPA, 2000).
    Naturally formed by algal biological processes (Orkin et al., 1997) and is a disinfection byproduct in public water treatment systems.
  • Environmental FateBiological. When bromochloromethane (5 and 10 mg/L) was statically incubated in the dark at 25 °C with yeast extract and settled domestic wastewater inoculum for 7 d, 100% biodegradation with rapid adaptation was observed (Tabak et al., 1981).
    Photolytic. The following rate constants were reported for the reaction of bromochloromethane and OH radicals as measured by both flash photolysis resonance fluorescence and discharge flow electron paramagnetic resonance techniques (x 10-13 cm3/molecule?sec): 0.91 at 4 °C, 1.11–1.13 at 25 °C, 1.32–1.34 at 40 °C, 1.55–1.58 at 57 °C, 1.76–1.90 at 76 °C, 2.10–2.26 at 97 °C (Orkin et al., 1997).
    Chemical/Physical. Although no products were identified, the estimated hydrolysis half-life in water at 25 °C and pH 7 is 44 yr (Mabey and Mill, 1978). Bromochloromethane reacts with bisulfide ion (HS-), produced by microbial reduction of sulfate, forming 1,3,5-trithiane and dithiomethane. Estimated reaction rate constants at 25 and 35 °C were 7.29 x 10-5 and 2.42 x 10- 4/M?sec, respectively (Roberts et al., 1992).
  • ShippingUN1887 Bromochloromethane, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials.
  • IncompatibilitiesIncompatible with strong oxidizers (possible explosion), reducing agents, bases, carbonates, furyl alcohol, chemically active metals, such as calcium; base metals in the presence of moisture, powdered aluminum; zinc, magnesium. Liquid attacks some plastics, rubber, and coatings.
  • Waste DisposalIncinerate together with flammable solvent in furnace equipped with afterburner and alkali scrubber.
Bromochloromethane Preparation Products And Raw materials
Bromochloromethane(74-97-5)Related Product Information
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