Chromium picolinate Chemical Properties
- storage temp. room temp
- Merck 14,2236
- CAS DataBase Reference14639-25-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemChromium, tris(2-pyridinecarboxylato-.kappa.N1,.kappa.O2)- (14639-25-9)
- Language:EnglishProvider:Picolinic acid chromium(III) salt
Chromium picolinate Usage And Synthesis
- Benefitschromium Picolinate is a nutritional supplement that is needed in the body but in small amounts. It gives the body the muscle mass that it needs. It also ebbs out the bad fat as it increases muscle mass.
Chromium Picolinate, like all herbs and minerals, it would be taken with the needed herbs to ensure proper function and good health in the body. Chromium Picolinate maintains the bodybuilding effect and nourishes the blood system.
Chromium Picolinate helps maintain the good condition of a body that is gaining muscle, it helps maintain the blood pressure and blood sugar.
After a hard day,Chromium Picolinate relaxes the muscle as it gains strength. stress is a daily occurrence in life,working out is work and may even tear muscles. Taking the Chromium Picolinate gives more of an assurance to the body muscles than not taking it at all.
The Chromium Picolinate removes metals and toxins from the body system. It also removes mercury that may have been digested while eating, if there is a mercury filled metal inside the teeth.
Gaining muscles also means having the need for energy.Moving about daily is so stressful it can cause the blood sugar to rise. It can cause blood pressure too. The Chromium Picolinate regulates the blood pressure, blood sugar and maintains the insulin in the body system to avoid any type of diabetes.
- Chemical propertiesChromium picolinate appears as fine purple crystalline powder with good fluidity. It is chemically stable at room temperature and is slightly soluble in water but insoluble in ethanol, wherein the chromium is in the trivalent form. The whole molecule structure is electrically neutral and has hydrophobic properties. Therefore, it is possible to perform the trans-membrane absorption on the intact structure with the molecular structure being similar to the GTF part.
In 1977, Toepfer thought that GTF is the biologically active form of chromium with its structure being the complex formed between nicotinic acid chromium and aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine and cysteine. The GTF-like structure of chromium picolinate class determines its own excellent absorption rate and can more effectively play its biological function. It is reported that the absorption rate of formulation of ordinary chromium was about 0.5% while the absorption rate of chromium is 2%-5% (Anderson, 1996).
- UsesChromium picolinate, a complex of trivalent chromium and picolinic acid, is better absorbed (2-5%) than dietary chromium.It is widely included in dietary supplements, espe-cially in multivitamin, multimineral products. These supplements are usu-ally available in capsule or tablet form.
Typical amounts of chromium picolinate used in multivitamin,multimineral dietary supplements range from 50 to 400 uglday. Specialtydietary supplements may contain much more chromium picolinate and mayinclude other forms of both chromium and picolinate.Chromium picolinateis also readily available in single-ingredient preparations or in combinationwith a few ingredients.
Chromium picolinate has been used successfully to control blood cholesterol and blood glucose levels. It also promotes the loss of fat and an increase in lean muscle tissue.Studies show it may increase longevity and help to fight osteoporosis.
Chromium picolinate (CrPic) is taken as the supplement or alternative medicine for type 2 diabetes. Experimental evidence has indicated CrPic boost glucose uptake via activating P38 MAPK. Chromium is thought to be able to enhance the action of insulin, thereby increasing insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes patients.
- Side effectsChromium picolinate has been associated with adverse effects. Unlike other forms of chromium,chromium picolinate moves from the bloodstream into cells intact, and then dissociates, and toxicity may be related to accumulation of intracellular chromium III ions or accumulation of picolinic acid. It has been associated with enhanced production of hydroxyl radicals,depletion of antioxidant enzymes,DNA damage and mutagenesis.Comparative cell studies of chromium picolinate and niacin-bound chromium have shown that chromium picolinate produces a greater amountof oxidative stress and DNA damage, and the picolinic acid component is believed to be largely responsible.In animals, it has been found to cause oxidative damage to lipids and DNA.However, in a short-term study, animals given 33,250 or 2000 mg/kg of chromium picolinate,equivalent to 4.1,30.8 and 246 mg/kg of chromium,showed no evidence of chromosomal damage in their bone marrow cells. Chromium picolinate has been implicated in a variety of adverse effects，including kidney and liver dysfunction, skin blisters and pustules,anaemia, haemolysis, tissue oedema and nerve damage.Many of the proposed adverse effects in humans are based on case reports in which chromium picolinate has not been proven to be the causative factor.In 2004,the UK Committee on Mutagenicity of Chemicals in Food，Consumer Products and the Environment reviewed the evidence, and concluded that the balance of the evidence suggested that chromium picolinate was not genotoxic, and that its use should not be restricted.
- Chemical PropertiesDark violet crystal
- L-carnitine [2,2'-dithiobis[pyridine] 1,1'-dioxide-O,O',S][sulphato(2-)-O]magnesium 2-(2-pyridyl)isothiourea N-oxide hydrochloride Sodium omadine Zinc picolinate Zinc pyrithione Lipoic acid Chromium hexacarbonyl 2-Picolinic acid Formic acid Chromium CHROMIUM (III) HYDROXIDE N-HYDRATE Chromic acetate CHROMIUM GTF POLYNICOTINATE Chromium picolinate CHROMIUM PICOLINATE (3,4,5,6-PYRIDINE-14C) CHROMIUM FORMATE CHROMIUM (II) ACETATE
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