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Aconitine Basic information
Aconitine Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:200-205 °C (dec.)
  • alpha D +17.3° (chloroform)
  • Boiling point:675.12°C (rough estimate)
  • Density 1.2181 (rough estimate)
  • refractive index 1.6630 (estimate)
  • storage temp. Refrigerator
  • form White to off-white powder.
  • pka5.88(at 25℃)
  • Water Solubility Soluble in ethanol. Sparingly soluble in water
  • Merck 13,120
  • CAS DataBase Reference302-27-2
  • NIST Chemistry ReferenceAconitine(302-27-2)
Safety Information
  • Hazard Codes T+,Xi
  • Risk Statements 26/28-36/37/38
  • Safety Statements 24-45-36-26
  • RIDADR UN 1544 6.1/PG 1
  • WGK Germany 2
  • RTECS AR5960000
  • 10-34
  • HazardClass 6.1(a)
  • PackingGroup I
  • ToxicityLD50 in mice (mg/kg): 0.166 i.v.; 0.328 i.p.; approx 1 orally (Dybing); also reported as LD50 in mice (mg/kg): 1.8 orally, 0.270 s.c.; 0.380 i.p.; 0.12 i.v. (Sato)
Aconitine Usage And Synthesis
  • Chemical PropertiesOff-White Solid
  • Usesanesthetic (gastric), antipyretic, and cardiotoxin
  • UsesNeurotoxin. Activates tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na+ channels, inducing presynaptic depolarization, thus blocking the nerve action potential which, in turn, blocks the release of neurotransmitters and dec reases the end plate potential at the neuromuscular junction. Aconitine also blocks norepinephrine reuptake. In the heart, aconitine induces ventricular tachycardia after intracoronary injection. In c ultured ventricular myocytes, aconitine increases the duration of the action potential and induces the appearance of early after depolarization. Used in producing heart arrhythmia in experimental anim als.
  • UsesAconitine occurs to the extent of 0.4–0.8%in dried tuberous roots of aconite or monkshood (Aconitum napellus L. and Ranunculaceae) found in India, North America,and Europe. It is used to produce heartarrhythmia in experimental animals and asan antipyretic agent.
  • DefinitionChEBI: A diterpenoid that is 20-ethyl-3alpha,13,15alpha-trihydroxy-1alpha,6alpha,16beta-trimethoxy-4-(methoxymethyl)aconitane-8,14alpha-diol having acetate and b nzoate groups at the 8- and 14-positions respectively.
  • Health HazardAconitine is among the most toxic alkaloidsknown. Toxic doses are close to therapeuticdoses, and in humans as little as 2 mgmay cause death (Ferry and Vigneau 1983).An oral lethal dose of 28 mg/kg has alsobeen recorded (NIOSH 1986). The toxicsymptoms at low doses may be excitement,drowsiness, and hypermotility. The first signof poisoning from ingestion is a tingling,burning feeling on the lips, mouth, gums,and throat (Hodgson et al. 1988). This isfollowed by nervous disorders, anesthesia,loss of coordination, vertigo, hypersalivation,nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Toxic actionsof aconitine are very rapid. The crystallineform of this compound is much more toxicthan the amorphous aconitine. At a lethaldose, death may result from cardiorespiratoryfailure. Procaine may be an effective antidoteagainst aconitine poisoning.
  • Purification MethodsCrystallise it from EtOH, CHCl3 or toluene. [Beilstein 21/6 V 310.]
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