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PHENCYCLIDINE

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PHENCYCLIDINE Basic information
PHENCYCLIDINE Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:46.5℃
  • Boiling point:bp1.0 135-137°
  • Density 0.9762 (rough estimate)
  • refractive index 1.5000 (estimate)
  • Flash point:11 °C
  • storage temp. −20°C
  • pkapKa 8.5 (Uncertain)
  • color Colorless crystals
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemPiperidine, 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)- (77-10-1)
Safety Information
PHENCYCLIDINE Usage And Synthesis
  • UsesAnesthetic.
  • DefinitionChEBI: A member of the class of piperidines that is piperidine in which the nitrogen is substituted with a 1-phenylcyclohexyl group. Formerly used as an anaesthetic agent, it exhibits both hallucinogenic and neurotoxic effects.
  • brand nameSernylan (Parke-Davis).
  • General DescriptionPhencyclidine was introduced as a dissociative anestheticfor animals. Its close structural relative ketamine is still soused and may be used in humans. In humans,PCP produces a sense of intoxication, hallucinogenic experiencesnot unlike those produced by the anticholinergic hallucinogens,and often, amnesia.
    The drug affects many systems, including those of NE,DA, and 5-HT. It has been proposed that PCP (and certainother psychotomimetics) produces a unique pattern of activationof ventral tegumental area dopaminergic neurons.Itblocks glutaminergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.Thisaction is the basis for many of its CNS effects. PCP itself appearsto be the active agent. The psychotic state produced bythis drug is also cited as a better model than amphetaminepsychosis for the psychotic state of schizophrenia.
  • PharmacologyPCP acts as a biocide through its ability to uncouple mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.
  • Safety ProfilePoison by intraperitoneal route. Experimental reproductive effects. Caution: This is a controlled substance (depressant) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Part 1308.12 (1985). The ethylamine, pyrrolidine and thiophene analogs are l
  • Metabolic pathwayWhen mice and rats are administered phencyclidine intraperitoneally, several hydroxylated metabolites are identified in the urine. A new metabolite, 1-phenyl-1- (1-piperidinyl-3-ol)cyclohexane, is identified in the urine and liver microsomal preparations.
  • MetabolismPentachlorophenolwas metabolized in rats by conjugation with glucuronic acid and eliminated as the glucuronide. P450 catalyzed oxidative dechlorination also occurred to form tetrachlorohydroquinone, and this was conjugated to form a monoglucuronide representing 27% of the dose administered. Other metabolites have been reported, including isomeric tetrachlorophenols, tetrachlorocatechol and tetrachlororesorcinol. Trace amounts of benzoquinones were also noted.
    Metabolites in female rats were tetrachloromonophenols, diphenols, and hydroquinones.
  • Toxicity evaluationThe toxicology has been addressed in a recent risk assessment (119). Acutely, pentachlorophenol was reported to have LD50 values in the rat of 12 mg/kg (inhalation) and 146 mg/kg (M)–175 mg/kg (F) by oral gavage. More detailed studies of the toxicology of pentachlorophenol have been compromised by the toxicity of impurities present in most of the earlier samples used in the evaluation process.
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