Azadirachtin Chemical Properties
Azadirachtin Usage And Synthesis
- DescriptionKernel extracts from the Indian neem tree (Azadirachta indica) have insecticidal and insect-repellent properties. The key active ingredient is azadirachtin, a nortriterpenoid that exhibits insect growth regulator effects but no adulticidal activity.
- Chemical PropertiesOff-white, yellowish powder or dark brown emulsifiable concentrate.
- UsesAzadirachtin is a tetranortriterpinoid isolated from the seeds of the neem tree. Highly active insect feeding deterrent and growth regulator.It is used experimentally as insect control agent.
- UsesExperimentally as insect control agent.
- UsesAzadiractin is extracted from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica). It is the principal active ingredient of extracts of neem. Neem extracts and pure azadirachtin are used to control whitefly, leaf miners and other pests including pear psylla.
- DefinitionChEBI: A member of the family of azadirachtins that is isolated from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica).
- Agricultural UsesInsecticides, Nematicide: Azadirachtin is an extract of fruit from the Neem tree, which is largely grown in India. It is used as a commercial insect growth regulator that controls the metamorphosis process as the insect passes from the larva stage to the pupa stage. The Neem tree also yields extracts from its bark, leaves and wood that are used in medicine and cosmetics.
- Trade nameALIGN®; AZATIN EC®; AZATIN®-XL PLUS; AZATROL EC®; AMAZIN® ECOZIN® EI- 783®; MARGOSAN-O®; NEEM®; NEEMAZAL®; ORNAZIN® SALANNIN®; SUPERNEEM®; TURPLEX®
- Potential ExposureBiological tetranortriterpinoid insecticide; insect growth regulator. A natural product extracted from seeds of the Neem tree (Azadirachta indica).
- Metabolic pathwayThe natural insecticide azadirachtin is most stable in mildly acidic solutions between pH 4 and 6 at room temperature and unstable in alkaline and strong acidic conditions. While azadirachtin is relatively stable to heating in the seeds or as a pure solid, it is rapidly destroyed or altered by heating in aqueous solution and methanol. In methanol at 90°C, it is quantitatively converted to 3-acetyl-1-tigloylazadirachtinin.
- ShippingUN3077 Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n.o.s., Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardous material, Technical Name Required.
- DegradationAfter 90 hours exposure to UV radiation, very little azadirachtin (l)its 3-
acetyl derivative and 22,23-dihydroazadirachtin remained intact. However,
these compounds retained biological activity, and at least 200 hours
irradiation was necessary to reduce the biological activity of 1. It is suggested
that the effect of ultraviolet radiation is confined to the tigloyl
residue which is common to these three compounds and which may
undergo cis-trans isomerisation, rearrangement, etc. without significant
effect on the biological activity of the molecule, because reduction or
removal of the tigloyl residue causes only limited reduction in biological
activity of the parent (Barnby ef al., 1989).
Azadirachtin was hydrolysed readily in several buffers (pH 4.1-8.1) and natural waters (pH 6.2,7.3,8.0 and 8.1) at 35 °C and its disappearance followed pseudo-first-order kinetics (Szeto and Wan, 1996). Rates of disappearance of the parent were faster in basic than in acidic solution (DT50 was 12 hours at pH 8 and 206 hours at pH 6) and the compound is not expected to be persistent in water.
- IncompatibilitiesPowder or liquid may form explosive mixture with air. Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides, reducing agents and metals, acid chlorides, alkalis, alkali metals, high heat, including sunlight.
- Waste DisposalWaste product may be disposed of onsite (open dumping may be prohibited) or at an approved waste disposal facility. All federal, state, and local environmental regulations must be observed.
- METHYL 2-HYDROXYDODECANOATE Methyl dimethoxyacetate 2-HYDROXYOCTADECANOIC ACID Dodecyl 2-methylacrylate METHYL 3-HYDROXYUNDECANOATE 15-METHYLHEXADECANOIC ACID 2,2-DIHYDROXY-2,2-DIISOBUTYLPROPANE 1,2,7,8-OCTANETETROL DECYL VINYL ETHER (3-methylbutoxy)acetic acid 4-HYDROXY-CYCLOHEXANECARBOXYLIC ACID METHYL ESTER ACETATE 2-Methylhexadecanoic acid methyl ester 2-TERT-BUTOXYTETRAHYDROFURAN ISO-AMYL METHACRYLATE ISOAMYL TIGLATE (+)-METHYL (S)-3-HYDROXYPENTANOATE 2,2-DIISOAMYL-1,3-PROPANEDIOL ISOSTEARIC ACID
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