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GAMBOGIC ACID Basic information
GAMBOGIC ACID Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:88.5°C
  • alpha D20 -685° (methanol)
  • Boiling point:586.06°C (rough estimate)
  • Density 1.1057 (rough estimate)
  • refractive index 1.5290 (estimate)
  • storage temp. Store at -20°C
  • solubility DMSO: ≥10mg/mL
  • pka4.58±0.36(Predicted)
  • form powder
  • color yellow to orange
Safety Information
  • Hazard Codes T
  • Risk Statements 25-36/37/38
  • Safety Statements 26-45
  • RIDADR UN 2811 6.1 / PGIII
  • WGK Germany 1
  • RTECS PB9268200
  • HS Code 29189900
  • ToxicityLD50 unreported in mammal (species unspecified): 55mg/kg
GAMBOGIC ACID Usage And Synthesis
  • Usesantiinflammatory, cytotoxic, inhibits HeLa cells in vitro;
  • DefinitionChEBI: A natural product found in Garcinia hanburyi.
  • Biological ActivityNatural product isolated from the Garcinia hanburyi tree. Induces apoptosis in several tumor cell lines including T47D cells. Activates caspases with an EC 50 value of 0.78-1.64 μ M and competitively inhibits antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins (IC 50 values are 1.47, 1.21, 2.02, 0.66, 1.06 and 0.79 μ M for Bcl-XL, Bcl-2, Bcl-W, Bcl-B, Bfl-1 and Mcl-1 respectively). Also blocks K IR 2.1 channels (EC 50 ≤ 100 nM).
  • Anticancer ResearchGambogic acid is a xanthonoid, also known as kokum that is a resin from Garciniaindica, that can inhibit the proliferation of human breast, hepatoma, lung, and gastriccarcinoma cells. It is also an apoptotic inducer and inhibits telomerase and theexpression of telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA and its promoter. It also suppressesCDK7-mediated CDC2/p34 phosphorylation, downregulates Bcl-2, andinteracts with c-myc. By interacting with transferrin receptors, it mediates apoptosisof cancer cells. It inhibits NF-κB pathway. In vivo and in vitro experiments determinedits potential to inhibit angiogenesis and VGEF-2 receptor, and thus it inhibitshuman endothelial cell growth, invasion, and migration, microvessel growth, andtube formation (Zhang et al. 2004; Pandey et al. 2007; Aggarwal et al. 2008).
    GA, extract from Garcinia hanburyi, the most important active constituent of gamboge,inhibits the heat shock protein (Hsp90) (Zhang 2010). Hsp90 is the majorprotein in tumour regeneration as well as cell signalling, and its inhibition results ininduction of ER stress, thereby activating UPR target genes and ER stress sensorswhich further cause cell death (Lamoureux et al. 2014). Severe or sustained ERstress increases CHOP expression and stimulates IRE1α apoptotic signalling, ATF6and PERK. CHOP being the major regulator of Bcl2, Bim and DR5 leads to cellularapoptosis preventing tumour progression (Krajarng et al. 2015).
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