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Mosander in 1839 extracted a new earth lanthana, from impure cerium nitrate, and recognized the new element. Lanthanum is found in rare-earth minerals such as cerite, monazite, allanite, and bastnasite. Monazite and bastnasite are principal ores in which lanthanum occursin percentages up to 25 and 38%, respectively. Misch metal, used in making lighter flints, contains about 25% lanthanum. Lanthanum was isolated in relatively pure form in 1923. Ion-exchange and solvent extraction techniques have led to much easier isolation of the so-called “rare-earth” elements. The availability of lanthanum and other rare earths has improved greatly in recent years. The metal can be produced by reducing the anhydrous fluoride with calcium. Lanthanum is silvery white, malleable, ductile, and soft enough to be cut with a knife. It is one of the most reactive of the rare-earth metals. It oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air. Cold water attacks lanthanum slowly, and hot water attacks it much more rapidly. The metal reacts directly with elemental carbon, nitrogen, boron, selenium, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, and with halogens. At 310°C, lanthanum changes from a hexagonal to a face-centered cubic structure, and at 865°C it again transforms into a body-centered cubic structure. Natural lanthanum is a mixture of two isotopes, one of which is stable and one of which is radioactive with a very long halflife. Thirty other radioactive isotopes are recognized. Rareearth compounds containing lanthanum are extensively used in carbon lighting applications, especially by the motion picture industry for studio lighting and projection. This application consumes about 25% of the rare-earth compounds produced. La2O3 improves the alkali resistance of glass, and is used in making special optical glasses. Small amounts of lanthanum, as an additive, can be used to produce nodular cast iron. There is current interest in hydrogen sponge alloys containing lanthanum. These alloys take up to 400 times their own volume of hydrogen gas, and the process is reversible. Heat energy is released every time they do so; therefore these alloys have possibilities in energy conservation systems. Lanthanum and its compounds have a low to moderate acute toxicity rating; therefore, care should be taken in handling them. The metal costs about $2/g (99.9%).
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