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Kaolin is formed under acidic conditions through weathering or hydrothermal changes of feldspars, and &ndash; to a lower extent &ndash; also other aluminosilicates. It can form independent weathered kaolin deposits, kaolinite clays or may be a compound of kaolinite sandstones and oolitic ironstones, and less frequently also of pegmatites and hydrothermal deposits. The most significant kaolin deposits were formed through intensive weathering of rocks rich in feldspar (granite, arkose, certain types of ortho-gneisses, and migmatites). Millions of years ago, original material was decomposed by weathering, giving rise to kaolin and silica combined with higher or lower amounts of admixtures. Mechanical erosion formed the rock under the tropical climate of that era and at increased temperatures, chemical corrosion occurred under the activity of water saturated with CO2 and humic acids which eluted from water<sup>[9, 10]</sup>.<br /> World renowned deposits in the Czech Republic are especially situated in the district of Karlovy Vary (Sedlec, Podlesi, and Otovice). Kaolin deposits in the area of Karlovy Vary are primary, i.e. kaolin remained in the place of its formation. Extracted raw material contains 20 to 30% kaolin; the remainder is silica sand which is an integral part of the raw material. Deeper deposits tend to be less kaolinized. Larger areas with kaolin material contents of 15 to 35% formed through weathering of arkoses are found in the vicinity of Horni Briza, Kaznejov, and Chotikov. Lower quality kaolin deposites are near Nova Role, Vidnava, Kadan, Podborany, Znojmo, and Veverska Bityska<sup>[9, 10]</sup>.<br /> Kaolin was obtained from extracted kaolinite or kaolinite-illitic gritstone or pudding-stone from the &quot;mine U&quot;&nbsp;in southern Moravia using the following procedure (unpublished data): <ol> <li>Superficial soil layer (about 50 cm) was removed, and the raw material was floated to a suction pump by water cannon (water source was a pond formed on the surface of the mine after kaolin extraction).</li> <li>It was transported in the form of dense slurry through about 150 m long pipeline with about 20 cm in diameter to the processing plant halls.</li> <li>After kaolin washing, classification and separation steps according to the particle size, kaolin sedimentation, addition of colloid agent, and kaolin drying in wire baskets, the product was finished and could be dispatched to customers.</li> </ol>
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