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Formaldehyde can present a moderate tosevere health hazard injuring eyes, skin, andrespiratory system. It is a mutagen, teratogen,and probably carcinogenic to humans.It is a severe eye irritant. An amount of0.1 mg/day caused severe eye irritation inrabbits. In humans a 1-ppm concentration cancause burning in the eyes. Its lachrymating effect on humans can become intolerable at10 ppm in air. Exposure to 50 mg/day causedmoderate skin irritation in rabbits. Contactwith formaldehyde solution or its resins cancause sensitization to dermatitis. Exposure byhumans at 1–2 ppm of formaldehyde in aircan exhibit the symptoms of itching eyes,burning nose, dry and sore throat, sneezing,coughing, headache, feeling thirsty, and disturbedsleep.<br/>Inhalation of a high concentration offormaldehyde can lead to death. Animalstudies indicated that exposure to 700 ppmfor 2 hours was fatal to mice; cats diedof an 8-hours exposure. Chronic exposureto a 40-ppm concentration was lethal tomice, with symptoms of dyspnea, listlessness,loss of body weight, inflammation inthe nasal tissues, and pathological changesin the nose, larynx, trachea, and bronchi.In addition to this, pathological changes inovaries and uterus were observed in femalemice. Neurotoxicity studies indicate thatacute low-level exposure (5–20 ppm) for3 h/day for 2 days can result in decreasedmotor activity in rats associated with neurochemicalchanges in dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine neurons.Similar to acrolein, formaldehyde can inducenasal toxicity; short-term exposure to6–15 ppm can cause respiratory epithelialinjury—the severity related to concentration(Monteiro-Riviere and Popp 1986). Theinjury as detected from SEM and TEMstudies was not specific to cell but to thearea of exposure (Popp et al. 1986). Ina subchronic (13-week) inhalation toxicitystudy of formaldehyde in rats, Woutersenet al. (1987) reported that the compoundwas hepatotoxic to rats only at >10 ppmconcentration. At 20 ppm concentration, thetreatment-related changes observed werestained coats, yellowing of the fur, growthretardation, and degeneration of nasal respiratoryepithelium.<br/>Subacute oral toxicity of formaldehydeand acetaldehyde in rats has been reported byTil et al. (1988). In a drinking water study,a dose level of 125 mg/kg formaldehydeper day was fed to rats for 4 weeks. Thesymptoms noted were yellow discolorationof the fur, decreased protein and albuminlevels in their blood plasma, hyperkeratosisin the forestomach, and gastritis. However,no adverse effect was noted at a dose of25 mg/kg/day. By comparison, only a lowtoxicity was observed with acetaldehyde at adose of 675 mg/kg/day.<br/>Upreti et al. (1987) studied the mechanismof toxicity of formaldehyde in male ratsby intraperitoneal injection of 14C-labeledHCHO. In 72 hours 41% of the dose waseliminated through expired air and another15% in urine. A significant level of radioactivitywas detected bound to subcellularmicrosomal fractions, deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), protein,lipid fractions of liver, and spleen tissues.The study indicates that formaldehyde undergoesrapid absorption and distribution in thebody.<br/>Formaldehyde-induced mutation has beenstudied in both human lymphoblasts andEscherichia coli (Crosby et al. 1988). Inhuman lymphoblasts, it induced large lossesof DNA. In E. coli, varying concentrationsof formaldehyde produced different geneticalterations.<br/>Animal studies indicate that it can causecancer. There is sufficient evidence of its carcinogenicityin test species resulting fromits inhalation. It caused olfactory tumor.Subcutaneous dosages produced skin tumorsat the sites of applications. Similar tumorigenicproperties of formaldehyde are expectedin humans. The evidence of its carcinogenicbehavior in humans, however, is limited.
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  • Formaldehyde
  • US $10.00 /KG
  • CAS:50-00-0
  • Min. Order: 1KG
  • Purity: 99.9%
  • Supply Ability: 100MT/Month
  • 2021-10-20
  • formaldehyde
  • US $20.00 /KG
  • CAS:50-00-0
  • Min. Order: 25KG
  • Purity: 99.99%
  • Supply Ability: 20 tons
  • 2021-10-14

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