2,3,7,8-Tetrachlordibenzo[b,e][1,4]dioxin Produkt Beschreibung

2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN Struktur
1746-01-6
  • CAS-Nr.1746-01-6
  • Bezeichnung:2,3,7,8-Tetrachlordibenzo[b,e][1,4]dioxin
  • Englisch Name:2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN
  • Synonyma:2,3,7,8-Tetrachlordibenzo[b,e][1,4]dioxin;2,3,7,8-TCDD;2,3,7,8-Tetrachlor-1,4-dioxin;Seveso-Gift
    TCDD;TCDBD;DIOXIN;Dioxine;Dioksyny;NCI-C03714;Tetradioxin;DIOXIN-TCDD;2,3,7,8-TCDD;dioksyny(polish)
  • CBNumber:CB6739638
  • Summenformel:C12H4Cl4O2
  • Molgewicht:321.97
  • MOL-Datei:1746-01-6.mol
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlordibenzo[b,e][1,4]dioxin physikalisch-chemischer Eigenschaften
  • Schmelzpunkt: :284-287°C
  • Siedepunkt: :407.62°C (rough estimate)
  • Dichte :1.6430 (estimate)
  • Dampfdruck :340 at 25 °C (Rodorf, 1985)
  • Brechungsindex :1.6430 (estimate)
  • Flammpunkt: :4 °C
  • storage temp.  :Refrigerator
  • Farbe :Colorless to white needles
  • Henry's Law Constant :5.40 at 20 °C (approximate - calculated from water solubility and vapor pressure)
  • Expositionsgrenzwerte :An IDLH of 1 ppb was recommended by Schroy et al. (1985).
  • CAS Datenbank :1746-01-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
Sicherheit
  • Kennzeichnung gefährlicher :F,Xn
  • R-Sätze: :11-38-48/20-63-65-67
  • S-Sätze: :36/37-62-46
  • RIDADR  :2811
  • WGK Germany  :3
  • HazardClass  :6.1(a)
  • PackingGroup  :I
  • Toxizität :LD50 in male, female rats (mg/kg): 0.022, 0.045 orally (Schwetz)

2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden

  • ERSCHEINUNGSBILD FARBLOSE BIS WEISSE NADELARTIGE KRISTALLE.
  • CHEMISCHE GEFAHREN Zersetzung beim Erhitzen auf 750-800°C und unter Einfluss von UV-Licht unter Bildung von Chlor.
  • ARBEITSPLATZGRENZWERTE TLV nicht festgelegt (ACGIH 2005).
    MAK: 10 ^-^8mg/m? (Einatembare Fraktion); Spitzenbegrenzung: überschreitungsfaktor II(8); Hautresorption; Krebserzeugend Kategorie 4; Schwangerschaft: Gruppe C; (DFG 2005).
  • AUFNAHMEWEGE Aufnahme in den Körper durch Inhalation des Staubes, über die Haut und durch Verschlucken.
  • INHALATIONSGEFAHREN Verdampfung bei 20°C vernachlässigbar; eine gesundheitsschädliche Partikelkonzentration in der Luft kann jedoch beim Dispergieren schnell erreicht werden.
  • WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION:
    Die Substanz reizt die Augen, die Haut und die Atemwege. Möglich sind Auswirkungen auf Herz-Kreislaufsystem, Magen-Darm-Trakt, Leber, Nervensystem und das endokrine System. Die Auswirkungen treten u.U. verzögert ein.
  • WIRKUNGEN NACH WIEDERHOLTER ODER LANGZEITEXPOSITION Wiederholter oder andauernder Hautkontakt kann Dermatitis hervorrufen. Möglich sind Auswirkungen auf Knochenmark, endokrines System, Immunsystem, Leberund Nervensystem. Krebserzeugend für den Menschen. Tierversuche zeigen, dass die Substanz möglicherweise fruchtbarkeitsschädigend oder entwicklungsschädigend wirken kann.
  • LECKAGE Gefahrenbereich verlassen! Fachmann zu Rate ziehen! Chemikalienschutzanzug mit umgebungsluftunabhängigem Atemschutzgerät.
  • R-Sätze Betriebsanweisung: R11:Leichtentzündlich.
    R38:Reizt die Haut.
    R48/20:Gesundheitsschädlich: Gefahr ernster Gesundheitsschäden bei längerer Exposition durch Einatmen.
    R63:Kann das Kind im Mutterleib möglicherweise schädigen.
    R65:Gesundheitsschädlich: kann beim Verschlucken Lungenschäden verursachen.
    R67:Dämpfe können Schläfrigkeit und Benommenheit verursachen.
  • S-Sätze Betriebsanweisung: S36/37:Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzhandschuhe und Schutzkleidung tragen.
    S62:Bei Verschlucken kein Erbrechen herbeiführen. Sofort ärztlichen Rat einholen und Verpackung oder dieses Etikett vorzeigen.
  • Chemische Eigenschaften White Solid
  • Chemische Eigenschaften Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin is a white, needleshaped, crystalline solid.
  • Verwenden A toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin detected in domestic meat and poultry.
  • Allgemeine Beschreibung White crystals or tan crystalline powder.
  • Air & Water Reaktionen Insoluble in water.
  • Reaktivität anzeigen 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN reaacts when exposed to ultraviolet light in solution in isooctane or n-octanol. Undergoes catalytic perchlorination .
  • Brandgefahr Literature sources indicate that 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN is nonflammable.
  • Sicherheitsprofil Confirmed carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic, neoplastigenic, tumorigenic, and teratogenic data. One of the most toxic synthetic chemicals. A deadly experimental poison by ingestion, skin contact, and intraperitoneal routes. Human systemic effects by skin contact: allergic dermatitis. Experimental reproductive effects. Human mutation data reported. An eye irritant. TCDD is the most toxic member of the 75 dioxins. It causes death in rats by hepatic cell necrosis. Death can follow a lethal dose by weeks. Acute and subacute exposure result in wasting, hepatic necrosis, thymic atrophy, hemorrhage, lymphoid depletion, chloracne. A by-product of the manufacture of polychlorinated phenols. It is found at low levels in 2,4,5-T, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, and hexachlorophene. It is also formed during various combustion processes. Incineration of chemical wastes, including chlorophenols, chlorinated benzenes, and biphenyl ethers, may result in the presence of TCDD in flue gases, fly ash, and soot particles. It is immobile in contaminated soil and may be retained for years. TCDD has the potential for bio-accumulation in animals. An accident in Seveso, Italy, and inadvertent soil contamination in Mmouri have resulted in abandonment of the contaminated areas. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Cl-.
  • mögliche Exposition TCDD is primarilly a research chemical. As noted above, TCDD is an inadvertent contaminant in herbicide precursors and thus in the herbicides themselves. It is also formed during various combustion processes including the incineration of chemical wastes (chlorophenols, chlorinated benzenes, and biphenyl ethers). It may be found in flue gases, fly ash, and soot particles. It is highly persistent in soil, and contamination may be retained for years. TCDD is the most toxic of all the dioxins, and has the potential for bio-accumulation in animals. Thus, it is applied in herbicide formulations, but is not used per se. It has been estimated that approximately 2 million acres in the United States have been treated for weed control on one or more occasions with approximately 15 million pounds of TCDD contaminated 2,4,5,-T, 2,4,-D, or combinations of the two.
  • Carcinogenicity 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is known to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in humans, both epidemiological and on the mechanism of carcinogenesis. TCDD was first listed in the Second Annual Report on Carcinogens as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. Subsequently, a number of studies were published that examined cancer in human populations exposed to TCDD occupationally or through industrial accidents. A concerted research effort examined the molecular and cellular events that occur in tissues of humans and animals exposed to TCDD. Based on the new information, the listing was revised to known to be a human carcinogen in the January 2001 addendum to the Ninth Report on Carcinogens.
  • Source Although not produced commercially, TCDD is formed as a by-product in the synthesis of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol. TCDD was found in 85% of soil samples obtained from a trichlorophenol manufacturing site. Concentrations ranged from approximately 20 ng/kg to 600 g/kg (Van Ness et al., 1980). TCDD may be present in the herbicide 2,4-D which contains a mixture of dichloro-, trichloro-, and tetrachlorodioxins. TCDD is commonly found as a contaminant associated with pulp and paper mills (Boddington, 1990). In addition, during the manufacture of 2,4,5-T and silvex from trichlorophenol, TCDD was found at concentrations averaging 20 parts per billion (Newton and Snyder, 1978).
    TCDD is unintentionally formed during the combustion of domestic and industrial waste (Czuczwa and Hites, 1984, 1986) and bleaching of paper pulp by chlorine compounds (Buser et al., 1989; Swanson et al., 1988).
    Drinking water standard (final): MCLG: zero; MCL: 3 x 10-5 μg/L (U.S. EPA, 2000). In Canada, the Ontario Ministry of Environment has established an Interim Drinking Water Objective of 10 parts per quadrillion (Boddington, 1990). In addition, the U.S. EPA (2000) recommended a DWEL of 4 x 10-5 μg/L.
  • Environmental Fate Biological. After a 30-d incubation period, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was capable of oxidizing TCDD to carbon dioxide. Mineralization began between the third and sixth day of incubation. The production of carbon dioxide was highest between 3 to 18 d of incubation, after which the rate of a carbon dioxide produced decreased until the 30th day. It was suggested that the metabolism of TCDD and other compounds, including p,p′-DDT, benzo[a]pyrene, and lindane, was dependent on the extracellular lignin-degrading enzyme system of this fungus (Bumpus et al., 1985).
    A half-life of 418 d was calculated based on die away test data (Kearney et al., 1971). In a laboratory sediment-water system incubated under anaerobic conditions, the half-life of TCDD was 500 to 600 d (Ward and Matsumura, 1978).
    Soil. In shallow and deep soils, reported half-lives were 10 and 100 yr, respectively (Nauman and Schaum, 1987). Due to its low aqueous solubility, TCDD will not undergo significant leaching by runoff (Helling et al., 1973).
    Surface Water. Plimmer et al. (1973) reported that the photolysis half-life of TCDD in a methanol solution exposed to sunlight was 3 h. Volatilization half-lives of 32 and 16 d were reported for lakes and rivers, respectively (Podoll et al., 1986).
    Photolytic. Pure TCDD did not photolyze under UV light. However, in aqueous solutions containing cationic (1-hexadecylpyridinium chloride), anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate), and nonionic (methanol) surfactants, TCDD decomposed into the end product tentatively identified as 2-phenoxyphenol. The times required for total TCDD decomposition using the cationic, anionic, and nonionic solutions were 4, 8, and 16 h, respectively (Botré et al., 1978). TCDD photodegrades rapidly in alcoholic solutions by reductive dechlorination. In water, however, the reaction was very slow (Crosby et al., 1973). In an earlier study, Crosby et al. (1971) reported a photolytic halflife of 14 d when TCDD in distilled water was exposed to sunlight. The major photodegradative pathway of TCDD involves a replacement of the chlorine atom by a hydrogen atom. The proposed degradative pathway is TCDD to 2,7,8-trichlorodibenzo[b,e][1,4]dioxin to 2,7-dichlorodibenzo- [b,e][1,4]dioxin to 2-chlorodibenzo[b,e][1,4]dioxin to dibenzo[b,e][1,4]dioxin to 2-hydroxydiphenyl ether, which undergoes polymerization (Makino et al., 1992).
    Chemical/Physical. TCDD was dehalogenated by a solution of poly(ethylene glycol), potassium carbonate, and sodium peroxide. After 2 h at 85 °C, >99.9% of the applied TCDD decomposed. Chemical intermediates identified include tri-, di-, and chloro[b,e]dibenzo[1,4]dioxin, dibenzodioxin, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, ethylene, and acetylene (Tundo et al., 1985).
    TCDD will not hydrolyze to any reasonable extent (Kollig, 1993).
  • Solubility in organics Acetone (110 mg/L), benzene (570 mg/L), chlorobenzene (720 mg/L) chloroform (370 mg/L), o-dichlorobenzene (1,400 mg/L), methanol (10 mg/L) and octanol (48–50 mg/L) (Crummett and Stehl, 1973; Arthur and Frea, 1989); benzene (570 mg/L), tetrachloroethene (680 mg/L), lard oil (40 mg/L), hexane (280 mg/L) (quoted, Keith and Walters, 1992).
  • Solubility in water Acetone (110 mg/L), benzene (570 mg/L), chlorobenzene (720 mg/L) chloroform (370 mg/L), o-dichlorobenzene (1,400 mg/L), methanol (10 mg/L) and octanol (48–50 mg/L) (Crummett and Stehl, 1973; Arthur and Frea, 1989); benzene (570 mg/L), tetrachloroethene (680 mg/L), lard oil (40 mg/L), hexane (280 mg/L) (quoted, Keith and Walters, 1992).
  • Inkompatibilitäten Decomposes in ultraviolet (UV) light.
  • Verordnung (Regulations) Department of Transportation (DOT)
    TCDD is considered a hazardous material, and special requirements have been set for transporting this material in tank cars.
    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
    Clean Air Act
    Mobile Source Air Toxics: Dioxin and furans are listed as a mobile-source air toxic for which regulations are to be developed.
    National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Listed as a hazardous air pollutant.
    New Source Performance Standards: Regulations to limit dioxin emissions from various types of waste combustion and incineration units have been developed.
    Urban Air Toxics Strategy: Identified as one of 33 hazardous air pollutants that present the greatest threat to public health in urban areas.
2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN Upstream-Materialien And Downstream Produkte
Upstream-Materialien
Downstream Produkte
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlordibenzo[b,e][1,4]dioxin Anbieter Lieferant Produzent Hersteller Vertrieb Händler.
Global(0)Suppliers
1746-01-6, 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN Verwandte Suche:
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  • 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin solution
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  • e)(1,4)dioxin,2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo(
  • NCI-C03714
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  • tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
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  • 2,3,7,8-TETRACDD
  • DIOXIN-TCDD
  • 1746-01-6
  • Aromatics
  • Heterocycles