Basic information Description structure and hydrogen bonding Originator Uses Health Benefits Safety Related Supplier
Saponin Chemical Properties
- Melting point:158℃
- Density 1.015-1.020 g/mL at 20 °C (5% in H2O)(lit.)
- storage temp. Store at RT.
- solubility Do you have solubility information on this product that you would like to share
- form Tan solid
- color Yellow crystalline
- Water Solubility Soluble in cold water.
- Merck 14,8365
- Stability:Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
- EPA Substance Registry SystemSaponins (8047-15-2)
Saponin Usage And Synthesis
- DescriptionSaponin is a secondary metabolite that facilitates the penetration of proteins through the cell membrane. Studies indicate that saponins are amphipathic glycosides, which can act as hemolytic agents. Research indicates that Saponin displays antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities, which may be due to its nonglycosidic moiety, sapogenin. Saponin can also be used in environmental research to recover chromium and other metals from sludge samples. Additional studies indicate that Saponin is useful in immunoassays since it can stimulate the Th1 immune response and the production of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes in response to exogenous antigens.
- structure and hydrogen bondingThe aglycone (glycoside-free) portions of the saponins are termed sapogenins. The number of saccharide chains attached to the sapogenin/aglycone core can vary – giving rise to another dimension of nomenclature (monodesmosidic, bidesmosidic, etc.) – as can the length of each chain. A somewhat dated compilation has the range of saccharide chain lengths being 1–11, with the numbers 2–5 being the most frequent, and with both linear and branched chain saccharides being represented. Dietary monosaccharides such as D-glucose and D-galactose are among the most common components of the attached chains. The lipophilic aglycone can be any one of a wide variety of polycyclic organic structures originating from the serial addition of 10-carbon (C10) terpene units to compose a C30 triterpene skeleton, often with subsequent alteration to produce a C27 steroidal skeleton. The subset of saponins that are steroidal have been termed saraponins. Aglycone derivatives can also incorporate nitrogen, so some saponins also present chemical and pharmacologic characteristics of alkaloid natural products. The figure at right above presents the structure of the alkaloid phytotoxin solanine, a monodesmosidic, branched-saccharide steroidal saponin. (The lipophilic steroidal structure is the series of connected six- and five-membered rings at the right of the structure, while the three oxygen-rich sugar rings are at left and below. Note the nitrogen atom inserted into the steroid skeleton at right.)
- OriginatorSaponins are phytochemicals which can be found in most vegetables, beans and herbs. The best known sources of saponins are peas, soybeans, and some herbs with names indicating foaming properties such as soapwort, saoproot, soapbark and soapberry. Commercial saponins are extracted mainly from Yucca schidigera and Quillaja saponaria.
- UsesSaponins are steroid or triterpenoid glycosides found in wild or cultivated plants, lower marine animals and some bacteria. Notably, saponins can also activate the mammalian immune system, which have led to significant interest in their potential as vaccine adjuvants. Their unique capacity to stimulate both the Th1 immune response and the production of cytotoxic Tlymphocytes (CTLs) against exogenous antigens makes them ideal for use in subunit vaccines and vaccines directed against intracellular pathogens as well as for therapeutic cancer vaccines.
Saponins are used in permeabilization of cell membranes and separation of low molecular weight contaminants and as an adjuvant in vaccine development.
- Health BenefitsSaponins have many health benefits. Studies have illustrated the beneficial effects on blood cholesterol levels, cancer, bone health and stimulation of the immune system. Most scientific studies investigate the effect of saponins from specific plant sources and the results cannot be applied to other saponins.
Saponins bind with bile salt and cholesterol in the intestinal tract. Bile salts form small micelles with cholesterol facilitating its absorption. Saponins cause a reduction of blood cholesterol by preventing its re-absorption.
Reduce cancer risk
Studies have shown that saponins have antitumor and anti-mutagenic activities and can lower the risk of human cancers, by preventing cancer cells from growing. Saponins seem to react with the cholesterol rich membranes of cancer cells, thereby limiting their growth and viability.
Plants produce saponins to fight infections by parasites. When ingested by humans, saponins also seem to help our immune system and to protect against viruses and bacteria.
Reduce bone loss
Studies with ovariectomized induced rats have shown that some saponins, such as the steroidal saponins from Anemarrhena asphodeloides, a Chinese herb, have a protective role on bone loss.
The non-sugar part of saponins have also a direct antioxidant acitivity, which may results in other benefits such as reduced risk of cancer and heart diseases.
- Chemical PropertiesLight yellow powder
- Definitionsaponin: A type of toxic glycosidethat forms a frothy colloidal solutionon shaking with water. Saponinsoccur in many plants (such as horsechestnut). They break down redblood cells and have been used forpoisoning fish. On hydrolysis theyyield a variety of sugars.
Saponin Preparation Products And Raw materials
- Raw materialsHydrochloric acidSulfuric acid Sodium carbonateActivated carbonPETROLEUM ETHERSolvent oil No.120
- Preparation Products16-Dehydropregnenolone acetateHydrocortisoneCortisone acetateSarcosineHydrocortisone acetate17-Hydroxy-7-alpha-mercapto-3-oxo-17-alpha-pregn-4-ene-21-carboxylic acid-gamma-lactone-7-acetate
- ESCIN, MIXTURE OF SAPONINS 1,1,3,3-TETRAMETHYLBUTYL ISOCYANIDE DICHLORO(ETHYLENEDIAMINE)PLATINUM(II) N-BUTYLISOCYANIDE METHYL ISOCYANOACETATE TERT-BUTYL ISOCYANIDE SALCOMINE 2,4-PENTANEDIONE, SILVER DERIVATIVE PHENYLSELENOL COBALT ETHYLENE DIAMINE CHLORIDE Ethyl isocyanoacetate BENZYL ISOCYANIDE Tosylmethyl isocyanide TRIBULOSIDE Ginsenoside Rh2 Dioscin Ginseng Monosomic saponins Rh, Escin sodium
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