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Lead dioxide

Basic information Uses Safety Related Supplier
Lead dioxide Basic information
Lead dioxide Chemical Properties
Safety Information
MSDS
Lead dioxide Usage And Synthesis
  • UsesLead (IV) oxide (PbO2) is also known as lead dioxide. It is a brown substance important in the operation of the lead-acid storage battery.
  • DescriptionLead dioxide, PbO2, also plumbic oxide, is an odorless dark-brown crystalline powder which is nearly insoluble in water. It exists in two crystalline forms. The a phase has orthorhombic symmetry, lattice constants a=0.497 nm, b=0.596 nm, c= 0.544 nm, Z=4 (four formula units per unit cell).
  • Chemical Propertiesbrown to black powder
  • Chemical PropertiesLead dioxide is a dark brown crystalline solid or powder.
  • Physical propertiesRed tetragonal crystals or brown powder; density 9.64 g/cm3; decomposes on heating at 290°C; practically insoluble in water; also insoluble in alkalis; moderately soluble in hydrochloric acid and also, in nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide mixture; slowly dissolves in acetic acid.
  • OccurrenceLead dioxide occurs in nature as the mineral plattnerite. It is used as an oxidizing agent in manufacturing dyes and intermediates. It also is used as a source of oxygen in matches, pyrotechnics, and explosives. In matches, the oxide is combined with amorphous phosphorus as an ignition surface. It also is used in making lead pigments, liquid polysulfide polymers and rubber substitutes. Lead dioxide electrodes are used in lead storage batteries in which lead dioxide accumulates on positive plates.
  • UsesLead dioxide is a strong oxidizing agent that is used in the manufacture of matches, pyrotechnics, dyes and other chemicals. It also has several important applications in the electrochemical industry, in particular as a component of lead–acid batteries used in almost all types of vehicles.
  • Uses
    Industry
    Application
    Role/benefit
    Electrochemistry
    Regenerating potassium dichromate
    Anode material/inexpensive and has high oxygen evolution over voltage
    Electroplating copper and zinc in sulfate baths
    Oxidation electrolytic by clarification Water
    Production of glyoxylic acid from oxalic acid in a sulfuric acid electrolyte
    Lead acid batteries
    Rubber
    Vulcanized rubber
    Vulcanizing agent
    Chemical analysis
    Organic elemental analysis and chromatographic analysis
    Analytical reagent
    Others
    Production of matches, pyrotechnics, dyes
    Additive
    High-voltage lightning arresters
    Resistor element
    Coating of pipes
    Helps to reduce lead contamination of drinking water
     
  • UsesLead dioxide occurs in nature as the mineral plattnerite. It is used as an oxidizing agent in manufacturing dyes and intermediates. It also is used as a source of oxygen in matches, pyrotechnics, and explosives. In matches, the oxide is combined with amorphous phosphorus as an ignition surface. It also is used in making lead pigments, liquid polysulfide polymers and rubber substitutes. Lead dioxide electrodes are used in lead storage batteries in which lead dioxide accumulates on positive plates.
  • PreparationLead dioxide is produced by oxidizing an alkaline slurry of lead monoxide with chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, or bleaching powder. Alternatively, it is obtained by passing chlorine into a hot aqueous suspension of lead sulfate and magnesium hydroxide. The ionic reaction is:
    Pb(OH) +ClOˉ → PbO2 + Clˉ+ OHˉ + H2O
    It also is produced by electrolysis of acidic solutions of lead salts using a lead or platinum electrode. In such electrolytic process, lead dioxide is deposited on the anode of the cell.
    Insoluble powdered lead dioxide also may be obtained when lead tetroxide is heated with nitric acid:
    Pb3 O4 + 4HNO3 → 2Pb(N)3)2 + PbO2 + 2H2O
    Lead dioxide also can be prepared by fusing lead monoxide with a mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium chlorate.
  • General DescriptionBrown, hexagonal crystals. Insoluble in water. Used in matches, explosives, electrodes.
  • Reactivity ProfileNoncombustible but accelerates the burning of combustible material. Reacts violently with hydrogen sulfide [Bretherick 1979. p. 977-978]. Ignites with hydroxylamine [Mellor 8:291. 1946-47]. Reacts violently with hydrogen peroxide [Mellor 1:937 1946-47], with phenylhydrazine [Mellor 7:637 1946-47], or with sulfuryl chloride [Mellor 10:676. 1946-47]. Reacts with incandescence with sulfur dioxide [Mellor, 1941, Vol. 7, 689]. Explodes when ground with boron or yellow phosphorus [Mellor, 1946, Vol. 5, 17]. Mixtures with sulfur and red phosphorus ignite [Mellor, 1941, Vol. 7, 689]. Reacts vigorously when heated with calcium sulfide, strontium sulfide or barium sulfide [Mellor, 1941, Vol. 3, 745].
  • Health HazardToxic by ingestion. Inhalation of dust is toxic. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Contact with substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.
  • Fire HazardThese substances will accelerate burning when involved in a fire. May explode from heat or contamination. Some may burn rapidly. Some will react explosively with hydrocarbons (fuels). May ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may create fire or explosion hazard.
  • Potential ExposureThis material is used in electrodes for lead-acid batteries; in matches; explosives, and as a curing agent for polysulfide elastomers
  • ShippingUN1872 Lead dioxide, Hazard Class: 5.1; Labels: 5.1-Oxidizer.
  • IncompatibilitiesLead dioxide is a powerful oxidizer. Violent reaction with many compounds, including reducing agents; chemically active metals; combustible materials, strong acids, alkaline earth sulfides, aluminum carbides, aluminum, amines, calcium sulfide, carbides, chlorine trifluoride, glycerin, hydrides, hydrochloric acid, hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen sulfide, hydroxylamine, magnesium, metal powders, metal sulfides, molybdenum, phenylhydrazine, phosphorous red/friction, phosphorous trichloride, silicon, sulfides, sulfur, sulfur dioxide, sulfur/friction, sulfuric acid, tungsten, hydrogen trisulfide
  • Waste DisposalConversion to soluble salt, precipitation as sulfide and return to supplier. Do not discharge into drains or sewers. Dispose of waste material as hazardous waste using a licensed disposal contractor to an approved landfill. Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Containers must be disposed of properly by following package label directions or by contacting your local or federal environmental control agency, or by contacting your regional EPA office.
Lead dioxide Preparation Products And Raw materials
Lead dioxide(1309-60-0)Related Product Information
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