L-Leucine Chemical Properties
- Melting point:>300 °C(lit.)
- alpha 15.4 º (c=4, 6N HCl)
- Boiling point:122-134 °C(Press: 2-3 Torr)
- Density 1,293 g/cm3
- vapor pressure <1 hPa (20 °C)
- refractive index 1.4630 (estimate)
- FEMA 3297 | L-LEUCINE
- Flash point:145-148°C
- storage temp. Store at RT.
- solubility 1 M HCl: 50 mg/mL
- pka2.328(at 25℃)
- form powder
- color White to Off-white
- PH5.5-6.5 (20g/l, H2O, 20℃)
- optical activity[α]20/D +15.5°, c = 2 in 6 M HCl
- Water Solubility 22.4 g/L (20 C)
- λmaxλ: 260 nm Amax: 0.05
λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.05
- Sublimation 145-148 ºC
- JECFA Number1423
- Merck 14,5451
- BRN 1721722
- Stability:Stability Moisture and light sensitive. Incompatible with strong oxidising agents.
- CAS DataBase Reference61-90-5(CAS DataBase Reference)
- NIST Chemistry ReferenceLeucine(61-90-5)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemL-Leucine (61-90-5)
- Safety Statements 24/25
- WGK Germany 3
- RTECS OH2850000
- TSCA Yes
- HS Code 29224995
L-Leucine Usage And Synthesis
- descriptionL-leucine is one of the eight essential amino acids, and belonging to the aliphatic amino acids within twenty kinds of proteins. L-leucine and L-isoleucine and L-valine are called three branched chain amino acids. L-leucineLeucine and D-leucine are enantiomers . It is a white shiny hexahedral crystal or white crystalline powder at room temperature , Odorless, slightly bitter . In the presence of hydrocarbons ,it is stable in the aqueous mineral acid. Per gram is dissolved in 40ml water and about 100ml acetic acid. Very slightly soluble in ethanol or ether, dissolved in formic acid, dilute hydrochloric acid, a solution of alkali hydroxides and a solution of carbonates.
L-leucine can promote insulin secretion, can lower blood sugar; promote sleep, reduce sensitivity to pain, migraine headaches, anxiety and ease tension, reduce symptoms of chemical reactions disorder in the body caused by alcohol , and helps control alcoholism; it has a role in the treatment of dizziness , also can promote skin wound and bone healing, so doctors usually advise patients to take leucine supplements after surgery. amino acid infusion and comprehensive amino acid preparations are often formulated to be used in the treatment or health care; also be used as food, cosmetics and feed additives and plant growth promoter.
The best food sources of leucine include brown rice, beans, meat, nuts, soy flour, and whole wheat. Excessive intake can also cause side effects, high intake can cause pellagra, vitamin A deficiency, dermatitis, diarrhea, mental disorders and other issues,which needs to be paid attention to . Diet containing too much leucine will increase the number of ammonia in the body and destroy the liver and kidney function. Therefore, patients with impaired liver or kidney function should not be excessive intake, otherwise it will exacerbate the condition.
- Chemical PropertiesWhite shiny hexahedral crystals or white crystalline powder. Slightly bitter (DL-leucine is sweet). Sublimation at 145~148 ℃. Melting point 293~295 ℃ (decomposition). It belongs to the essential amino acids,and adult men requirement is 2.2g/d (151 version). It is necessary in normal growth for infants and maintaining normal nitrogen balance for adults.
Natural products are found in the spleen, heart, etc., and are present in a variety of plant and animal tissues in the form of the proteins, free out after decomposition and corruption.
- UsesAmino acid drugs. Used as amino acid infusion and comprehensive amino acid preparations. For the diagnosis and treatment of children with idiopathic high blood sugar and glucose metabolism disorders,bile liver disease associated with reduced secretion , anemia, poisoning, muscular dystrophy, poliomyelitis, neuritis and mental illness. Diabetes, cerebral vascular sclerosis and kidney disease associated with proteinuria and hematuria is contraindicated. Gastric and duodenal ulcer patients should not be served.
The product is used as a nutritional supplement,an amino acid infusion preparation and a comprehensive amino acid preparation,a hypoglycemic agent, a plant growth promoter.The product can be used as a spice according to GB 2760-8 .
- toxicitySafe for food (FDA, §172.3202000).
LD505379mg/kg (rat, subcutaneously).
- DescriptionSmall, white, lustrous plates, or a white, crystalline powder, with a slightly bitter taste. One g dissolves in about 40 mL of water and in about 100 mL of acetic acid. It is sparingly soluble in alcohol, but is soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid and in solutions of alkali hydroxides and carbonates. ι-Leucine may be synthesized by bromination, followed by amination of isocaproic acid; via the acetamidomalonic ester; by isolation from gluten, casein, keratin; from hydantoin.
- Chemical PropertiesL-Leucine is odorless and has a slightly bitter taste. L-Leucine is a branched-chain, essential amino acid that stimulates muscle protein synthesis.
- Chemical PropertiesWhite crystalline powder
- Chemical PropertiesLeucine occurs as a white or almost off-white crystalline powder or shiny flakes.
- OccurrenceReported found as a constituent in proteins; also present in the free state in the human body
- UsesAmino acid.
- Production MethodsLeucine is produced microbially by incubating an amino-acidproducing microorganism including but not exclusive to Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Bacillus, or Staphylococcus in the presence of oxygen and a hydrocarbon. The nutrient medium should contain an inhibitory amount of a growth inhibitor that is a chemically similar derivative of leucine (e.g. methylallylglycine, a-hydrozinoisocaproic acid, or b-cyclopentanealanine) to inhibit the growth of the organism except for at least one mutant that is resistant to the inhibitory effect. The resistant mutant is then isolated and grown in the presence of oxygen and the hydrocarbon in the absence of the inhibitor. The mutant cells are then harvested and a nutrient medium is formed that includes a hydrocarbon as the sole source of carbon. Finally, the harvested cells are incubated in the medium in the presence of oxygen.
- DefinitionChEBI: The L-enantiomer of leucine.
- PreparationBy bromination followed by amination of isocaproic acid; via the acetamidomalonic ester; by isolation from gluten, casein, keratin; from hydantoin.
- Pharmaceutical ApplicationsLeucine is used in pharmaceutical formulations as a flavoring agent. It has been used experimentally as an antiadherent to improve the deagglomeration of disodium cromoglycate micro-particles and other compounds in inhalation preparations; and as a tablet lubricant. Leucine copolymers have been shown to successfully produce stable drug nanocrystals in water.
- SafetyLeucine is an essential amino acid and is consumed as part of a
normal diet. It is generally regarded as a nontoxic and nonirritant
material. It is moderately toxic by the subcutaneous route.
LD50 (rat, IP): 5.379 g/kg
- storageLeucine is sensitive to light and moisture, and should be stored in an airtight container in a cool, dark, dry place.
- Purification MethodsLikely impurities are isoleucine, valine, and methionine. Crystallise L-leucine from water by adding 4 volumes of EtOH. It sublimes at 180-188o/0.3mm with 99.1% recovery, and unracemised [Gross & Gradsky J Am Chem Soc 77 1678 1955]. [Greenstein & Winitz The Chemistry of the Amino Acids J. Wiley, Vol 3 p 2075-2094 1961, Kameda et al. J Pharm Soc Jpn 78 763 1958, Beilstein 4 IV 2738.]
- IncompatibilitiesLeucine is incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
- Regulatory StatusIncluded in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (IV infusion; oral tablets). Included in nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK.
L-Leucine Preparation Products And Raw materials
- Preparation ProductsL-PhenylalanineN-Acetyl-L-leucineL(+)-LeucinolN-BOC-L-leucylglycyl-arginine-p-nitroanilide hydrochloride
- Raw materialsHydrochloric acidSulfuric acid AmmoniaAmmonium bicarbonateActivated carbonΑ-PROTEIN1,2-DimethylbenzeneCasein(2S,3S)-2-Amino-3-methylpentanoic acidL-MethionineNaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid HEMOGLOBIN2-BromotoluenePhenprobamateN-CARBOBENZOXY-DL-LEUCINEKERATINgranular active carbon
- D-LEUCINE L-Tyrosine L-Cysteine hydrochloride anhydrous L(+)-Arginine Poly-L-leucine H-GLA-OH FMOC-L-Leucine CBZ-L-LEUCINE,CBZ-LEUCINE Methyl L-leucinate hydrochloride N-Glycyl-L-leucine Ethyl L-leucinate hydrochloride L-Leucine 2-Propylpentanoic acid MAGNESIUM DIPROPYLACETATE HYDRATE Tris Base L-tert-Leucine Estradiol valerate 4-Methylvaleric acid
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