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Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt

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Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt Basic information
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt Chemical Properties
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Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt Usage And Synthesis
  • DescriptionEthylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (abbreviated as EDTA) is used in several industrial applications attributing to its high ability to bind to most of metal cations. EDTA is produced as several salts, e.g. ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid disodium salt (EDTAS).
    EDTA and its salts are used as chelating agents in cosmetic formulations. EDTAS is a preservative, sequestrant, and stabilizer in foods. EDTA is added to ascorbic acid-disodium benzoate containing soft drinks to mitigate the formation of benzene. EDTA and its salts are used as a component in the production of food-contact paper and paperboard. EDTAS is permitted in the feed and drinking water of animals and/or for the treatment of food-producing animals. In the textile industry, EDTA and its salts prevent metal ion impurities from changing colors of dyed products. In the pulp and paper industry, EDTA and its salts inhibit the ability of metal ions from catalyzing the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide (a typical bleaching agent). EDTAS is used in synthetic rubber manufacture. EDTAS is also used as a corrosion inhibitor to carbon steel in the industries. As an anticoagulant, EDTAS and tripotassium salts of EDTA are most commonly used.
  • References[1] Victor O. Sheffel (2000) Indirect Food Additives and Polymers: Migration and Toxicology.
    [2] Lanigan RS, Yamarik TA (2002) Final report on the safety assessment of EDTA, calcium disodium EDTA, diammonium EDTA, dipotassium EDTA, disodium EDTA, TEA-EDTA, tetrasodium EDTA, tripotassium EDTA, trisodium EDTA, HEDTA, and trisodium HEDTA, Int J Toxicol., 21, 95-142
  • Chemical Propertieswhite crystalline solid
  • Chemical PropertiesDisodium edetate occurs as a white crystalline, odorless powder with a slightly acidic taste.
  • Usesdisodium EDTA is a preservative used in concentrations of 0.1 to 0.5 percent.
  • UsesDisodium Dihydrogen EDTA is a sequestrant and chelating agent whose complete name is disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate. it is a nonhygroscopic powder that is colorless, odorless, and tasteless at recommended use levels. A 1% solution has a ph of 4.3–4.7. It is used to control the reaction of trace metals to include calcium and magnesium with other organic and inorganic components in food to prevent deterioration of color, texture, and development of precipitates and to prevent oxidation. Its function is comparable to that of disodium calcium edta.
  • UsesChelating agent (metal); pharmaceutic aid (chelating agent).
  • DefinitionChEBI: An organic sodium salt that is the anhydrous form of the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA).
  • Production MethodsDisodium edetate may be prepared by the reaction of edetic acid and sodium hydroxide.
  • brand nameEndrate (Hospira); Sodium Versenate (3M Pharmaceuticals).
  • Pharmaceutical ApplicationsDisodium edetate is used as a chelating agent in a wide range of pharmaceutical preparations, including mouthwashes, ophthalmic preparations, and topical preparations, typically at concentrations between 0.005 and 0.1% w/v.
    Disodium edetate forms stable water-soluble complexes (chelates) with alkaline earth and heavy-metal ions. The chelated form has few of the properties of the free ion, and for this reason chelating agents are often described as ‘removing’ ions from solution, a process known as sequestering. The stability of the metal–edetate complex is dependent on the metal ion involved and the pH.
    Disodium edetate is also used as a water softener as it will chelate calcium and magnesium ions present in hard water. It is also used therapeutically as an anticoagulant as it will chelate calcium and prevent the coagulation of blood in vitro. Concentrations of 0.1% w/v are used in small volumes for hematological testing and 0.3% w/v in transfusions.
  • Safety ProfilePoison by intraperitoneal and intravenous routes. Moderately toxic by ingestion. Experimental teratogenic and reproductive effects. Mutation data reported. The calcium disodium salt of EDTA is used as a chelating agent in treating lead poisoning. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx and NasO.
  • SafetyDisodium edetate is used widely in topical, oral, and parenteral pharmaceutical formulations; it is used extensively in cosmetic and food products. Disodium edetate and edetate calcium disodium are used in a greater number and variety of pharmaceutical formulations than is edetic acid. Both disodium edetate and edetate calcium disodium are poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and are associated with few adverse effects when used as excipients in pharmaceutical formulations.
    Disodium edetate, trisodium edetate, and edetic acid readily chelate calcium and can, in large doses, cause calcium depletion (hypocalcemia) if used over an extended period of time, or if administered too rapidly by intravenous infusion. If used in preparations for the mouth, they can also leach calcium from the teeth. However, edetate calcium disodium does not chelate calcium.
    Disodium edetate should be used with caution in patients with renal impairment, tuberculosis, and impaired cardiac function.
    Although disodium edetate is generally considered safe, there have been reports of disodium edetate toxicity in patients receiving chelation therapy.
    Nasal formulations containing benzalkonium chloride and disodium edetate, both known to be local irritants, were shown to produce an inflammatory reaction, and microscopic examination showed an extended infiltration of the mucosa by eosinophils, and pronounced atrophy and disorganization of the epithelium, although these effects were subsequently shown to be reversible.
    The WHO has set an estimated acceptable daily intake for disodium EDTA in foodstuffs of up to 2.5 mg/kg body-weight
    LD50 (mouse, IP): 0.26 g/kg
    LD50 (mouse, IV): 0.056 g/kg
    LD50 (mouse, OP): 2.05 g/kg
    LD50 (rabbit, IV): 0.047 g/kg
    LD50 (rabbit, OP): 2.3 g/kg
    LD50 (rat, OP): 2.0 g/kg
  • Veterinary Drugs and TreatmentsEdetate Disodium (Sodium EDTA) is a chelating agent that is also used to stop the melting effect of collagenases and proteases on the cornea. EDTA is useful in halting melting through inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases, but is not felt to be useful for melting caused by infectious agents. As the effect of EDTA on metalloproteinases is reversible, it must be administered several times daily to be effective.
  • storageEdetate salts are more stable than edetic acid (see also Edetic acid). However, disodium edetate dihydrate loses water of crystallization when heated to 120°C. Aqueous solutions of disodium edetate may be sterilized by autoclaving, and should be stored in an alkali-free container.
    Disodium edetate is hygroscopic and is unstable when exposed to moisture. It should be stored in a well-closed container in a cool, dry place.
  • IncompatibilitiesDisodium edetate behaves as a weak acid, displacing carbon dioxide from carbonates and reacting with metals to form hydrogen. It is incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong bases, metal ions, and metal alloys.
  • Regulatory StatusGRAS listed. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (inhalations; injections; ophthalmic preparations; oral capsules, solutions, suspensions, syrups, and tablets; rectal topical, and vaginal preparations). Included in nonparenteral and parenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt Preparation Products And Raw materials
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