ChemicalBook > Product Catalog > Chemical Reagents > Organic reagents > Cyanide / nitrile > Mandelonitrile
Mandelonitrile Chemical Properties
- Melting point:-10 °C
- Boiling point:170 °C(lit.)
- Density 1.117 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
- refractive index n
- Flash point:207 °F
- storage temp. Store below +30°C.
- solubility alcohol: freely soluble
- form Liquid
- color Yellow to brown
- Sensitive Moisture Sensitive
- Merck 14,5719
- BRN 2207122
- Stability:Stable, but moisture sensitive. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
- CAS DataBase Reference532-28-5(CAS DataBase Reference)
- NIST Chemistry ReferenceBenzeneacetonitrile, «alpha»-hydroxy-(532-28-5)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemMandelonitrile (532-28-5)
Mandelonitrile Usage And Synthesis
- Chemical Propertiesreddish-brown liquid
- OccurrenceMandelonitrile, is a yellow, oily liquid, insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol and diethyl ether. Mandelonitrile is a component of the glycoside amygdalin, a precursor of laetrile found in the leaves and seeds on most Prunus species (plum, peach, apricot, etc). In 1832, mandelonitrile was the first cyanohydrin to be synthesized. It is commercially prepared from benzaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide. Mandelonitrile is used by certain insects (tiger beetles, an African millipede) as a defense fluid. After expelling the fluid an enzyme catalyzes the conversion of mandelonitrile to benzaldehyde and HCN, which is usually fatal to the insect’s enemy.
- DefinitionChEBI: A cyanohydrin that is phenylacetonitrile in which one of the methylene hydrogens is replaced by a hydroxy group.
- General DescriptionReddish-brown to dark red-brown liquid.
- Air & Water ReactionsMandelonitrile is sensitive to moisture. . Insoluble in water.
- Reactivity ProfileNitriles, such as Mandelonitrile, may polymerize in the presence of metals and some metal compounds. They are incompatible with acids; mixing nitriles with strong oxidizing acids can lead to extremely violent reactions. Nitriles are generally incompatible with other oxidizing agents such as peroxides and epoxides. The combination of bases and nitriles can produce hydrogen cyanide. Nitriles are hydrolyzed in both aqueous acid and base to give carboxylic acids (or salts of carboxylic acids). These reactions generate heat. Peroxides convert nitriles to amides. Nitriles can react vigorously with reducing agents. Acetonitrile and propionitrile are soluble in water, but nitriles higher than propionitrile have low aqueous solubility. They are also insoluble in aqueous acids.
- Health HazardTOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution.
- Fire HazardMandelonitrile is combustible.
- Safety ProfilePoison by intravenous and subcutaneous routes. Mutation data reported. A severe eye irritant. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx and CN-. See also NITRILES.
Mandelonitrile Preparation Products And Raw materials
- Raw materialsSodium cyanide
- Mandelonitrile, 2-methoxy-6-methyl- (5CI) (-)-L-Mandelonitrile,(S)-Mandelonitrile cyano(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl 3,3-dimethylspiro[cyclopropane-1,1'-[1H]indene]-2-carboxylate DL-4-HYDROXYMANDELONITRILE 3-PHENOXYBENZALDEHYDE CYANOHYDRIN, 70 WT% SOLUTION IN ETHER TIMTEC-BB SBB005934 PHENYL-[3,4,5-TRIHYDROXY-6-(3,4,5-TRIHYDROXY-6-HYDROXYMETHYL-TETRAHYDRO-PYRAN-2-YLOXYMETHYL)-TETRAHYDRO-PYRAN-2-YLOXY]-ACETONITRILE (R)-α-Cyanobenzyl acetate, O-Acetyl-D-mandelonitrile,D-MANDELONITRILE ACETATE,O-ACETYL-D-MANDELONITRILE 3,4-DIHYDRO-1H-ISOCHROMENE-1-CARBONITRILE 2-METHOXY-2-PHENYL-3,3,3-TRIFLUOROPROPIONITRILE Mandelonitrile MANDELONITRILE GENTIOBIOSIDE TRIHYDRATE CYCLOPROTHRIN HYDROXY(3-NITROPHENYL)ACETONITRILE SUPERCYPERMETHRIN HYDROXY(2-NITROPHENYL)ACETONITRILE D-Mandelonitrile β-D-glucoside,D-MANDELONITRILE B-D-GLUCOSIDE,D-MANDELONITRILE-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE alpha,alpha-dicyanobenzyl benzoate
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