ChemicalBook > Product Catalog > API > Other Chemical drugs > Infection Prevention and Control of Epidemic > LINDANE
LINDANE Chemical Properties
- Melting point:113-115 °C(lit.)
- Boiling point:373.64°C (rough estimate)
- Density 1.7152 (rough estimate)
- vapor pressure 28.0, 55.3, 87.0, 168.8, 285.8, 297.0, and 538.5 at 19.58, 24.95, 28.42, 33.58, 37.82, 37.86, and43.32 °C, respectively (Boehncke et al., 1996)
- refractive index nD20 1.644
- Flash point:11 °C
- storage temp. 0-6°C
- solubility H2O: insoluble0.01g/L (practically)
- Water Solubility 7.3 mg l-1 (25 °C)
- form neat
- Merck 13,5523
- BRN 1907337
- Henry's Law Constant12.8 at 5 °C, 14.8 at 15 °C, 18.8 at 20 °C, 26.6 at 25 °C, 38.5 at 35 °C (gas stripping-GC, Cetin et al., 2006)
- Exposure limitsNIOSH REL: TWA 0.5 mg/m3, IDLH 50 mg/m3; OSHA PEL: TWA 0.5 mg/m3; ACGIH TLV: TWA 0.5 mg/m3.
- Stability:Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
- NIST Chemistry ReferenceLindane(58-89-9)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemLindane (58-89-9)
- Hazard Codes T,N,F,Xn,Xi
- Risk Statements 20/21-25-48/22-50/53-64-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-11-67-65-38-52/53-62-48/20-40-21
- Safety Statements 36/37-45-60-61-62-33-29-16-9-7-22
- RIDADR UN 2811 6.1/PG 1
- WGK Germany 3
- RTECS GV4900000
- HazardClass 6.1(b)
- PackingGroup III
- HS Code 2903810000
- Hazardous Substances Data58-89-9(Hazardous Substances Data)
- ToxicityLD50 in male, female rats (mg/kg): 88, 91 orally (Gaines)
LINDANE Usage And Synthesis
- Chemical Propertieswhite powder
- Chemical PropertiesLindane is a white to yellow, crystalline powder with a slight, musty odor (pure material is odorless).
- Chemical PropertiesBHC is a white-to-brownish crystalline solid with a musty, phosgene-like odor.
- Physical propertiesColorless to yellow crystalline solid with a slight, musty, chlorinated-like odor. Odor threshold concentration is 12.0 mg/kg (Sigworth, 1964). Robeck et al. (1965) reported an odor threshold of 330 ppb.
- UsesThe only identified uses for hexachlorocyclohexane-containing products are based on the insecticidal activity of the γ isomer (lindane), which is considered to be the only insecticidally effective component (Extoxnet 1996). Lindane or technical-grade hexachlorocyclohexane containing the γ isomer is used primarily as an insecticide in the treatment of wood and wooden structures, seed grains, and livestock (ATSDR 2005, HSDB 2009). Other major uses are as an insecticide for several dozen fruit and vegetable crops, in baits and seed treatments for rodent control, and for treatment of scabies (mites) and lice. It is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration foruse in three products for the treatment of lice and scabies (one lotionand two shampoos) (FDA 2009). Agricultural and pesticide uses accounted for about 270,000 kg (594,000 lb) of lindane and 450,000 kg (1 million pounds) of technical-grade hexachlorocyclohexane in 1974;the remaining uses were industrial or pharmaceutical (IARC 1979).
- UsesPesticide and insecticide.
- brand nameBenhexachlor;Gamex;Gamma benzene;Hexachloride.
- World Health Organization (WHO)Lindane has been available for more than 25 years and is widely used as an agricultural and household pesticide.
- General DescriptionColorless solid with a musty odor; pure material is odorless. Used as a pesticide and scabicide.
- Air & Water ReactionsInsoluble in water.
- Reactivity ProfileLINDANE is incompatible with strong bases. LINDANE is incompatible with powdered metals such as iron, zinc and aluminum. LINDANE is also incompatible with oxidizing agents. LINDANE can undergo oxidation when in contact with ozone. When exposed to alkalis, LINDANE undergoes dehydrochlorination.
- Health HazardLINDANE is a stimulant of the nervous system, causing violent convulsions that are rapid in onset and generally followed by death or recovery within 24 hours. The probable human oral lethal dose is 50-500 mg/kg, or between 1 teaspoon and 1 ounce for a 150-lb (70 kg) person.
- Health HazardHigh acute toxicity; symptoms — headache,dizziness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, tremor,cyanosis, epileptic convulsions; stimulant tonervous system, which can lead to violent convulsions; such convulsions may setrapidly that may either progress to recovery within 24 hours or could lead to death(Hayes 1982); ingestion of 2–10 g probably fatal to human; an irritant to eyeand skin; chronic exposure causes liverinjury; oral LD50 value (mice): 86 mg/kg;carcinogenic to animals, causing liver andlung tumors; exposure limit: TLV : TWA(skin) 0.5 mg/m3 (ACGIH, MSHA, andOSHA); RCRA Waste Number U120.
- Fire HazardWhen heated to decomposition, LINDANE emits toxic fumes of chlorine, hydrochloric acid, and phosgene.
- Agricultural UsesInsecticide, Rodenticide: Lindane has been used against insects in a wide range of applications including treatment of animals, buildings, man for ectoparasites, clothes, water for mosquitoes, living plants, seeds and soils. Most applications have been canceled due to excessive residues, e.g., stored foodstuffs, that may cause cancer. Formulators, distributors and users of lindane represent a special risk group. The major use of lindane in recent years has been to pretreat seeds. Other uses include sunflowers, peas, wheat, barley and oats. Lindane is currently also used in lotions, creams and shampoos for the control of lice and mites in humans. Not approved for use in EU countries. A U.S. EPA restricted Use Pesticide (RUP). Lindane should be handled as a carcinogen, with extreme caution. Most applications have been canceled. It has not been produced in the U.S. since 1977; however, it is still imported into the U.S. and formulated to treat head lice, body lice and scabies.
- Trade nameAALINDAN®; AFICIDE®; AGRISOL G-20®; AGROCIDE®; AGRONEXIT®; AMEISENATOD®; AMEISENMITTEL (MERCK)®; APARASIN®; APHTIRIA®; APLIDAL®; ARBITEX®; BEN-HEX®; BENTOX 10®; CELANEX®; CHLORESENE®; CODECHINE®; DELSANEX DAIRY FLY SPRAY®; DETMOL-EXTRAKT®; DETOX 25®; DEVORAN®; DOL GRANULE®; DRILL TOXSPEZIAL AGLUKON®; DUAL MURGANIC RPB SEED TREATMENT®; ENTOMOXAN®; EXAGAMA®; FORLIN®; GALLOGAMA®; GAMACID®; GAMAPHEX®; GAMENE®; GAMMA-COL®; GAMMALIN®; GAMMALIN 20; GAMMALEX®; GAMMASAN 30®; GAMMATERR®; GAMMAPHEX®; GAMMEX®; GAMMEXANE®; GAMMEXENE®; GAMMOPAZ®; GEXANE®; HECLOTOX®; HEXA®; HEXAFLOW®; HEXATOX®; HEXAVERM®; HEXICIDE®; HEXYCLAN®; HORTEX®; INEXIT®; ISOTOX®; JACUTIN®; KOKOTINE®; KWELL®; LENTOX®; LINDAGRAM®; LIDENAL®; LINDAFOR®; LINDAGAM®; LINDAGRAIN®; LINDAGRANOX®; LINDAPOUDRE®; LINDATOX®; LINDOSEP®; LINTOX®; LOREXANE®; MARSTAN FLY SPRAY®; MERGAMMA 30®; MILBOL 49®; MIST-O-MATIC LINDEX®; MSZYCOL®; NEXEN FB®; NEXIT®; NEXIT-STARK®; NEXOL-E®; NICOCHLORAN®; NOVIGAM®; OMNITOX®; OVADZIAK®; OWADZIAK®; PEDRACZAK®; PFLANZOL®; QUELLADA®; RODESCO INSECT POWDER®; SANG GAMMA®; SILVANO®; SPRITZ-RAPIDIN®; SPRUEHPFLANZOL®; STREUNEX®; TAP 85®; TRI- 6®; VITON®
- Contact allergensLindane is a pesticide used for its antiinsect properties in agriculture, wood protection, in antiinsect paints and veterinary and human medicine against many and veterinary and human medicine against many and demodicidosis. Its use is controlled, particularlybecause of neurological toxicity
- Clinical UseLindane is 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane, -benzenehexachloride, or benzene hexachloride (Kwell, Scabene,Kwildane, G-Well). This halogenated hydrocarbon is preparedby the chlorination of benzene. A mixture of isomersis obtained in this process, five of which have been isolated:α, β, γ, δ, and ε. The γ-isomer, present to 10% to 13% inthe mixture, is responsible for the insecticidal activity. The -isomer may be separated by various extraction and chromatographictechniques.Lindane occurs as a light buff to tan powder with a persistentmusty odor, and it is bitter. It is insoluble in water butsoluble in most organic solvents. It is stable under acidic orneutral conditions but undergoes elimination reactions underalkaline conditions.The action of lindane against insects is threefold: it is a directcontact poison, it has a fumigant effect, and it acts as astomach poison. The effect of lindane on insects is similar tothat of DDT. Its toxicity in humans is somewhat lower thanthat of DDT. Because of its lipid solubility properties, however,lindane when ingested tends to accumulate in the body.Lindane is used locally as a cream, lotion, or shampoo forthe treatment of scabies and pediculosis.
- Safety ProfileConfirmed carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic and neoplastigenic data. A human systemic poison by ingestion. Also a poison by ingestion, skin contact, intraperitoneal, intravenous, and intramuscular routes. Human systemic effects by ingestion: convulsions, dyspnea, and cyanosis. Experimental teratogenic and reproductive effects. Mutation data reported. See also BENZENE HEXACHLORIDE and other benzene hexachloride entries. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Cl-, HCl, and phosgene.
- Potential ExposureThe major commercial usage of BHC is based upon its insecticidal properties. α-BCH is used as an Agricultural chemical, pesticide, pharmaceutical, and veterinary drug. The 7-isomer has the highest acute toxic ity, but the other isomers are not without activity. It is gen erally advantageous to purify the 7-isomer from the less active isomers. The γ-isomer acts on the nervous system of insects, principally at the level of the nerve ganglia. As a result, lindane has been used against insects in a wide range of applications including treatment of animals, buildings, humans for ectoparasites, clothes; water for mosquitoes; living plants; seeds and soils. Some applications have been abandoned due to excessive residues, e.g., stored food stuffs. By voluntary action, the principal domestic producer of technical grade BHC requested cancellation of its BHC registrations on September 1, 1976. As of July 21, 1978, all registrants of pesticide products containing BHC voluntar ily canceled their registrations or switched their former BHC products to lindane formulations.
- CarcinogenicityLindane (as γ-hexachlorocyclohexane), hexachlorocyclohexan e (technical grade), and other hexachlorocyclohexane isomers are reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in experimental animals.
- Environmental FateBiological. In a laboratory experiment, a strain of Pseudomonas putida culture transformed
lindane to g-3,4,5,6-tetrachlorocyclohexane (g-TCCH), g-pentachlorocyclohexane
(g-PCCH) and a-BHC (Benezet and Matsumura, 1973). g-TCCH was also reported as a
product of lindane degradation by Clostridium sphenoides (MacRae et al., 1969; Heritage
and MacRae, 1977, 1977a), an anaerobic bacterium isolated from flooded soils (MacRae
et al., 1969; Sethunathan and Yoshida, 1973a). Lindane degradation by Escherichia coli
also yielded g-PCCH (Francis et al., 1975). Evidence suggests that degradation of lindane
in anaerobic cultures or flooded soils amended with lindane occurs via reductive dehalogenation
producing chlorine-free volatile metabolites (Sethunathan and Yoshida, 1973a).
After a 30-day incubation period, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium converted lindane to carbon dioxide. Mineralization began between the third and sixth day of incubation. The production of carbon dioxide was highest between 3 to 18 days o
Beland et al. (1976) studied the degradation of lindane in sewage sludge under anaerobic conditions. Lindane underwent reductive hydrodechlorination forming 3,4,5,6-tetrachlorocyclohex- 1-ene (g-BTC). The amount of g-BTC that formed reached a maximum conc
When lindane was incubated in aerobic and anaerobic soil suspensions for 3 weeks, 0 and 63.8% was lost, respectively (MacRae et al., 1984). Using settled domestic wastewater inoculum, lindane (5 and 10 mg/L) did not degrade after 28 days of incubation at 25°C (Tabak et al., 1981).
Soil. In moist soils, lindane biodegraded to g-pentachlorocyclohexene (Elsner et al., 1972; Kearney and Kaufman, 1976; Fuhremann and Lichtenstein, 1980). Under anaerobic conditions, degradation by soil bacteria yielded g-BTC and a-BHC (Kobayashi
- Metabolic pathwayThe metabolic pathways of gamma-HCH are complex and more than 80 metabolites have been identified (Macholz and Kujawa, 1985). Dehydrohalogenation reactions are important. Gamma-HCH may be converted into other HCH isomers in the environment and also microorganisms and plants may convert gamma-HCH (1) into the alpha (2), beta (3), or delta (4) isomers (see Schemel). Bioisomerisation does not appear to be a significant pathway in mammals. In animals, metabolism of gamma-HCH generally leads to less-chlorinated, unsaturated metabolites. Chlorinated phenols may be formed and excreted as glucuronides. In a detailed discussion of the biodegradation of gamma-HCH, the reaction mechanisms involved were critically reviewed (Kurihara and Nakajima, 1980). Oxygenation or glutathione conjugation are important initial stages in metabolism. Key intermediates in the metabolic pathways are hexachlorocyclohexene (18), pentachlorocyclohexene (5) and tetrachlorocyclohexene (6) and these have been identified in a number of organisms (Macholz and Kujawa, 1985).
- Solubility in waterWt % at 20 °C: 30.31 in acetone, 22.42 in benzene, 19.35 in chloroform, 17.22 in ether, 6.02 in
ethanol (Windholz et al., 1983)
9.76 and 13.97 g/L in hexane at 10 and 20 °C, respectively (shake flask-GC, Mills and Biggar, 1969)
92.8 g/kg in triolein at 25 °C (Chiou and Manes, 1986)
- ShippingUN2761 Organochlorine pesticides, solid, toxic, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials.
- Purification MethodsCrystallise it from EtOH. Purify it also by zone melting. Possible CANCER AGENT, TOXIC. [: Beilstein 1 H 23, : Beilstein 5 I 8, many isomers : Beilstein 5 III 41, 5 IV 55.]
- DegradationGamma-HCH is extremely stable to light, air, temperatures up to 180 °C, and to acids. It undergoes dechlorination in alkalis with DT50 values (22 °C) of 191 days (pH 7) and 11 hours (pH 9). It is photodegraded in organic solvents (2-propanol or methanol) by UV irradiation (254 nm).
- IncompatibilitiesLindane decomposes on contact with powdered iron, aluminum, and zinc and with alkalis producing trichlorobenzene. Corrosive to metals
- Waste DisposalFor the disposal of lindane, a process has been developed involving destructive pyrolysis @ 400-500℃ with a catalyst mixture which contains 5%-10% of either cupric chloride, ferric chloride; zinc chloride; or aluminum chloride on activated carbon. Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal.
LINDANE Preparation Products And Raw materials
- LINDANE (BHC GAMMA ISOMER) SOLUTION 100UG/ML IN TOLUENE 1ML AURORA 666 Antibiotic SF-666B,SF-666B LINDANE (BHC GAMMA ISOMER) (13C6) SOLUTION 100UG/ML IN N-NONANE 1.2ML GAMMA-HCH D6 lindane(bhcorhch-mixedisomers (g-Benzenehexachloride) (g-BHC) (Lindane-D6),GAMMA-1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLOROCYCLOHEXANE-D6 GAMMA-HCH 13C6 MIREX (13C8) KEPONE (TM) (13C8) Chlordecone Karbafosem [Polish] LINDANE (13C6, D6) LINDANE-UL-14C fentiuram LINDANE, [14C(U)] ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE MATRIX SPIKING MIXTURE MIREX
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- Tel:400-666-7788 010-82848833-
- Company Name:Shanghai Hanhong Scientific Co.,Ltd.
- Company Name:BEST-REAGENT
- Tel:18981987031 400-1166-196
- Company Name:Spectrum Chemical Manufacturing Corp.
- Company Name:Chengdu Ai Keda Chemical Technology Co., Ltd.
- Tel:4008-755-333 028-85911938-