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lenvatinib Mesylate

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lenvatinib Mesylate Basic information
lenvatinib Mesylate Usage And Synthesis
  • DescriptionDeveloped by Eisai Inc., lenvatinib mesylate is a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF) inhibitor which has activity against VEGF subtypes 1, 2, and 3 and was approved by the FDA in 2015 for the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer that is either locally recurrent, metastatic, or progressive and did not respond to radioactive iodine treatment. In May 2016, the FDA approved the drug as a combination therapy with everolimus for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma. Because VEGF (and fibroblast growth factor receptors, known as FGFRs) are thought to play a role in cardiovascular signaling pathways, VEGF2R and FGFR inhibition are thought to be the mechanisms behind the primary side effect of lenvatinib mesylate, which is hypertension.
  • UsesE7080 (Lenvatinib) is a multi-target inhibitor of VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 with IC50 of 4 nM and 5.2 nM, respectively.
  • DefinitionChEBI: A methanesulfonate salt obtained by reaction of lenvatinib with one molar equivalent of methanesulfonic acid. A multi-kinase inhibitor and orphan drug used (as its mesylate salt) for the treatment of various types of thyroid cancer that do not respond to r dioiodine.
  • Chemical SynthesisStarting from commercial aniline 193, a substitution reaction under neutral conditions in warm isopropyl alcohol with a commercial vinyl methoxy derivative of Meldrum’s acid (194) produced enamine 195 in good yield. Next, subjection of 195 to DOWTHERM A at 190 °C affected an intramolecular cyclizative substitution reaction, followed by loss of acetone, and a decarboxylation reaction to furnish quinolone 196. This cyclization reaction, which is a variant of the Conrad-Limpach reaction, is particularly noteworthy given the temperature and pH at which it takes place. Conrad- Limpach cyclizations typically proceed under basic conditions at temperatures well above 240 °C. However, a process was developed by Zeneca in 2004 which involved subjecting 195 to the DOWTHERM heat transfer fluid (commercially available from Dow and Sigma-Aldrich, consisting of a eutectic mixture of biphenyl and diphenyl oxide) allowed the team to lower the temperature required for the reaction, clearly observe bubbling of gas indicating the progress of the reaction, and simple cooling and treatment with ether to facilitated precipitate formation. The resulting solid could be collected by filtration and required no additional purification on scale in 80% yield. Quinoline 196 was then converted to the corresponding chloride using thionyl chloride in refluxing DMF, and the resulting ester 197 was converted to the corresponding amide through the use of 28% aqueous ammonia in warm ethanol, which ultimately produced the key chloroquinoline lenvatinib subunit 198 in 80% yield from 197.
           
    Commercial aminophenol 199 was converted to the corresponding carbamate through the use of phenyl chloroformate in essentially quantitative yield prior to subjection to cyclopropylamine in chilled DMF, which ultimately furnished urea 201 in 77% overall yield from 200. Next, exposure of phenol 201 to chloroquinoline 198 in the presence of potassium t-butoxide followed by treatment with methanesulfonic acid and acetic acid resulted in clean formation of lenvatinib mesylate (XXV) in 96% yield across the two-step sequence.
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