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1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinone

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1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinone Basic information
1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinone Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:191-193 °C(lit.)
  • Boiling point:342.92°C (rough estimate)
  • Density 1.3032 (rough estimate)
  • refractive index 1.5430 (estimate)
  • Flash point:>200°C
  • storage temp. Refrigerator
  • pka6.27±0.20(Predicted)
  • form Powder
  • color Orange-brown or brown
  • Water Solubility insoluble
  • Merck 14,2815
  • BRN 2054727
  • CAS DataBase Reference117-10-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • IARC2B (Vol. 50) 1990
  • NIST Chemistry Reference1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinone(117-10-2)
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemDanthron (117-10-2)
Safety Information
  • Hazard Codes Xn
  • Risk Statements 40
  • Safety Statements 36/37-36-22
  • RIDADR 2811
  • WGK Germany 1
  • RTECS CB6650000
  • TSCA Yes
  • HazardClass IRRITANT
  • HS Code 29146990
  • ToxicityLD50 orally in mice: <7 g/kg (Case)
MSDS
1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinone Usage And Synthesis
  • Chemical Propertiesorange-brown or brown powder
  • Chemical PropertiesRed-orange to orange crystalline powder or reddish-brown crystalline solid.
  • UsesImportant intermediate in the manufacture of alizarin and indanthrene dyestuffs; forms insoluble Ca, Ba, Pb lakes. Antioxidant in synthetic lubricants; fungicide.
  • UsesUsed as a stimulant laxative, though due to its carcinogenic properties, is not widely prescribed.
  • Usescathartic
  • DefinitionChEBI: A dihydroxyanthraquinone that is anthracene-9,10-dione substituted by hydroxy groups at positions 1 and 8.
  • brand nameDorbane (3M Pharmaceuticals); Istizin (Sterling Winthrop);Doss;Normax;Regulex-d.
  • World Health Organization (WHO)Dantron, an anthroquinone derivative, has been available for over twenty years and is widely used as a laxative. The results of two chronic toxicity studies in rodents, published in 1985 and 1986, have shown that administration of high doses is associated with the development of intestinal and liver tumours.
  • General DescriptionOrange crystalline powder. Almost odorless and tasteless.
  • Air & Water ReactionsInsoluble in water.
  • Reactivity Profile1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinone is incompatible with strong reducing substances such as hydrides, nitrides, alkali metals, and sulfides.
  • Fire HazardFlash point data for 1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinone are not available; however, 1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinone is probably combustible.
  • Safety ProfileConfirmed carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic data. Moderately toxic by intraperitoneal route. An eye irritant. Questionable carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic and neoplastigenic data. Human mutation data reported. A laxative. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.
  • Potential ExposureA potential liver carcinogen and possible narcotic, this compound is no longer sold or marketed in the United States Nervous system toxin-acute effects; Respiratory toxin-acute effects other than severe or moderate irritation; Liver-acute effects; Eye irritant-mild.
  • CarcinogenicityDanthron is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in experimental animals.
  • ShippingUN2811 Toxic solids, organic, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials, Technical Name Required.
  • Purification MethodsCrystallise Danthrone from EtOH and sublime it in a vacuum. [Beilstein 8 IV 3217.]
  • IncompatibilitiesKeep away from strong reducing agents, such as hydrides, nitrides, alkali metals, and sulfides.
  • Waste DisposalIt is inappropriate and possibly dangerous to the environment to dispose of expired or waste drugs and pharmaceuticals by flushing them down the toilet or discarding them to the trash. Household quantities of expired or waste pharmaceuticals may be mixed with wet cat litter or coffee grounds, double- bagged in plastic, discard in trash. Larger quantities shall carefully take into consideration applicable DEA, EPA, and FDA regulations. If possible return the pharmaceutical to the manufacturer for proper disposal being careful to prop- erly label and securely package the material. Alternatively, the waste pharmaceutical shall be labeled, securely packaged and transported by a state licensed medical waste contractor to dispose by burial in a licensed hazardous or toxic waste landfill or incinerator.
1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinone Preparation Products And Raw materials
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