ChemicalBook > Product Catalog > Organic Chemistry > Carboxylic acids and derivatives > Acyclic carboxylic acid > Propionic acid
Propionic acid Chemical Properties
- Melting point:−24-−23 °C(lit.)
- Boiling point:141 °C(lit.)
- Density 0.993 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
- vapor density 2.55 (vs air)
- vapor pressure 2.4 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
- refractive index n
- FEMA 2924 | PROPIONIC ACID
- Flash point:125 °F
- storage temp. Store below +30°C.
- solubility organic solvents: soluble(lit.)
- pka4.86(at 25℃)
- form Liquid
- Specific Gravity0.996 (20/4℃)
- color ≤10, APHA:
- PH2.5 (100g/l, H2O, 20℃)
- explosive limit2.1-12%(V)
- Odor Threshold0.0057ppm
- Water Solubility 37 g/100 mL
- JECFA Number84
- Merck 14,7825
- BRN 506071
- Exposure limitsTLV-TWA 10 ppm (～30 mg/m3) (ACGIH).
- Stability:Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. Flammable.
- CAS DataBase Reference79-09-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
- NIST Chemistry ReferencePropanoic acid(79-09-4)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemPropionic acid (79-09-4)
- Hazard Codes C
- Risk Statements 36/37/38-34-10
- Safety Statements 26-36-45-23
- RIDADR UN 3463 8/PG 2
- WGK Germany 1
- RTECS UE5950000
- Autoignition Temperature955 °F
- TSCA Yes
- HazardClass 8
- PackingGroup II
- HS Code 29155010
- Hazardous Substances Data79-09-4(Hazardous Substances Data)
- ToxicityLD50 orally in rats: 4.29 g/kg (Smyth)
Propionic acid Usage And Synthesis
- DescriptionFirst described by Johann Gottlieb in 1844, propanoic acid has become one of the most widely used additives in processed foods for human consumption and animal feedstocks. Originally, Gottlieb found the compound among the degradation products of certain sugars. The term – propionic acid – itself has the unique distinction of once being the designation for all fatty acids due to the writings of Jean-Baptiste Dumas, who, in 1847, postulated that all fatty acids were in reality just one compound. While larger chain fatty acids are important components of all living things, propionic acid is the shortest fatty acid that exhibits the classic behaviors of similar compounds.
- Chemical PropertiesPropionic acid, CH3CH2COOH, also known as propanoic acid and methylacetic acid, is a clear, colorless liquid that boils at 140°C (284 OF). It is flammable. It has a pungent odor and is soluble in water and alcohol. The Odor Threshold is 0.16 ppm. Propionic acid is an aliphatic monocarboxylic acid. Propionic acid is used in nickel electroplating solutions,perfumes, artificial flavors, pharmaceuticals, and manufacturing propionates.
- OccurrenceReported found in apple, apple juice, banana, currants, pineapple, raspberry, papaya, onion, sauerkraut, tomato, vinegar, beef, beef broth, beer, blackberry juice, bread, cheese, cherry juice, butter, yogurt, milk, cream, lean and fatty fish, cured pork, cooked beef and mutton, chicken fat, cognac, rum, whiskies, cider, sherry, roasted cocoa bean, cocoa powder, coffee, black currant juice, white currant juice, grape juice, grape musts and port wine, grapefruit juice, grape syrup, orange juice, Valencia orange oil, orange essence, roasted peanuts, pecans, potato chips, honey, soybean, Arctic bramble, coconut meat, cloudberry, mushroom, sesame seed, cardamom, rice, jackfruit, sake, buckwheat, laurel, peated malt, cassava, Bourbon vanilla, oyster, mussels, scallop, Chinese quince and maté.
- UsesPropionic acid is used in the productionof propionates used as mold inhibitors andpreservatives for grains and wood chips, inthe manufacture of fruit flavors and perfumebases, and as an esterifying agent.
- UsesPropionic acid is used as a mold inhibitor in bread and cheese products; in fungicides and herbicides; preservative for grains and wood chips; in emulsifying agents; in solutions for electroplating nickel, perfume esters, artificial fruit flavors, pharmaceuticals, and cellulose propionate plastics.
- UsesPropionic Acid is the acid source of the propionates. propionic acid in the liquid form has a strong odor and is corrosive, so it is used as the sodium, calcium, and potassium salts as a preservative. these yield the free acid in the ph range of the food in which they are used. it functions principally against mold. see calcium propionate; sodium propionate.
- Production MethodsPropionic acid can be obtained from wood pulp waste liquor by fermentation. It can also be prepared from ethylene, carbon monoxide and steam; from ethanol and carbon monoxide using boron trifluoride catalyst; from natural gas; or as a by-product in the pyrolysis of wood. Very pure propionic acid can be obtained from propionitrile. Propionic acid can be found in dairy products in small amounts.
- DefinitionChEBI: A short-chain saturated fatty acid comprising ethane attached to the carbon of a carboxy group.
- DefinitionA colorless liquid carboxylic acid.
- Biotechnological ProductionGenerally, propionic acid is produced via petrochemical routes. However, fermentative
processes are interesting for food-grade production, although the price
of biotechnologically produced propionic acid may be twice that of petrochemistry-
based propionic acid. The microbial production of propionic acid is done
with propionibacteria (e.g. Propionibacterim freudenreichii) . Several
fermentation methods have been studied. For example, an extractive fermentation
is suggested to avoid low productivity and yields caused by product inhibition
. With this technique, a product concentration of 75 g.L-1 propionic acid, a
yield of 0.66 g propionic acid per gram lactose, and a productivity of approximately
1 g.L-1.h-1 are reached .
Different substrates, such as glycerol , wheat flour , or mixtures of glycerol and glucose , have been analyzed to reduce costs. Also, techniques of cell immobilization show promising results . Fibrous-bed reactor systems show the highest product concentrations: up to 106 g.L-1 propionic acid and a yield of 0.56 g propionic acid per gram glycerol. In recent years, metabolic engineering has been used to improve the acid tolerance and to reduce byproduct formation . 104 H. Quitmann et al.
For example, the acetate kinase gene has been inactivated by mutation of Propionibacterium acidipropionici . Additionally, an adaptive evolution has been carried out. As result, the productivity was enhanced by approximately 50 %, up to 0.25 g.L-1.h-1 and a yield of 0.59 g propionic acid per gram glycerol, using immobilized cells adapted to high acid concentration.
- Taste threshold valuesTaste characteristics at 60 ppm: acidic, dairy with a pronounced fruity lift.
- General DescriptionA clear oily aqueous liquid with a pungent rancid odor. Burns skin and the vapors irritate mucous membranes. Corrosive to most metals and tissue. Density 8.3 lb / gal.
- Air & Water ReactionsDilution with water causes release of heat.
- Reactivity ProfilePropionic acid reacts as an acid to neutralize bases in exothermic reactions. Burns when exposed to heat, flame or oxidizers. When heated to decomposition emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes [Lewis, 3rd ed., 1993, p. 1090].
- HazardModerate fire risk. Strong eye, skin and upper respiratory tract irritant.
- Health HazardPropionic acid is a toxic and corrosive liquid. Contact with the eyes can result ineye injury. Skin contact may cause burns.Acute exposures to its vapors can causeeye redness, mild to moderate skin burns,and mild coughing (ACGIH 1986). Ingestionof high amounts of this acid may producecorrosion of the mouth and gastrointestinaltract in humans. Other symptoms includevomiting, diarrhea, ulceration, and convulsions. Oral LD50 value in rats is about3500–4300 mg/kg. The LD50 value by skinabsorption in rabbits is 500 mg/kg..
- Fire HazardFlammable/combustible material. May be ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water.
- Pharmaceutical ApplicationsPropionic acid is primarily used as an antioxidant and antimicrobial preservative in foods, and in oral and topical pharmaceutical applications. It is also used as an esterifying agent.
- Clinical UsePropionic acid is an antifungal agent that is nonirritatingand nontoxic. After application, it is present in perspiration in low concentration ( 0.01%). Salt forms with sodium,potassium, calcium, and ammonium are also fungicidal.Propionic acid is a clear, corrosive liquid with a characteristicodor. It is soluble in water and alcohol. Thesalts are usually used because they are nonvolatile andodorless.
- Safety ProfilePoison by intraperitoneal route. Moderately toxic by ingestion, skin contact, and intravenous routes. A corrosive irritant to eyes, skin, and mucous membranes. Flammable liquid. Highly flammable when exposed to heat, flame, or oxidizers. To fight fire, use alcohol foam. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.
- SafetyPropionic acid is generally regarded as a nontoxic and nonirritant
material when used in low levels as an excipient. Up to 1% may be used in food applications (up to 0.3% in flour and cheese products).
Propionic acid is readily metabolized.
The pure form of propionic acid is corrosive and will cause burns to any area of contact. Both liquid and vapor forms are flammable. Concentrated propionic acid is harmful if swallowed, inhaled or absorbed through the skin. See also Sodium Propionate.
(mouse, IV): 0.63 g/kg
(rabbit, skin): 0.5 g/kg
(rat, oral): 2.6 g/kg
- Chemical SynthesisCommercial processes produce propionic acid by chemical synthesis and in small quantities by bacterial fermentation
- Potential ExposurePropionic acid is used in the manufac- ture of inorganic propionates and propionate esters which are used as mold inhibitors, electroplating additives; emul- sifying agents; flavors and perfumes. It is an intermediate in pesticide manufacture, pharmaceutic manufacture; and in the production of cellulose propionate plastics. Also used as grain preservative.
- CarcinogenicityRats fed high levels of propionic acid (4%) in a powdered diet developed forestomach neoplasia, which was believed to have arisen from sustained high levels of cellular proliferation. When administered at 4% in the diet as a pellet rather than as a powder, cellular hyperplasia and the associated severe inflammatory response were absent. In another study whereWistar ratswere fed 75%bread containing5%of the salt, sodiumpropionate rather than the acid for 1 year, no histopathology of the forestomach was reported. This suggests that the form of chemical (salt versus free acid), as well as the type of diet, is also an important factor in eliciting this effect. Harrison notes that a variety of chemicals, chemical and mechanical irritants, parasites, and dietary deficiencies cause forestomach tumors in rats. The predictive value of this finding in humans is, therefore, problematic because humans have no forestomach and food transit times are much faster. Interestingly, propionic acid inhibited the growth of the human adenocarcinoma cell line HT29 derived from similar epithelial tissue of human colon cancer patients, whereas other short-chain fatty acids, such as acetate, enhance transformation.
- Environmental FateThe widespread use of propionic acid has led to its detection in
waste streams and groundwater. It is a degradation product of
longer chain fatty acids, and has been detected in waste streams
following olive oil production and other processes. Additionally,
propionic acid has been qualitatively detected as a volatile
component of cooked potatoes and meats as well as in other
foods and beverages, including dairy products. Propionic acid
is a major component of the gas phase of the smoke of unfiltered
cigarettes, with quantities estimated at 100–300 mg per
In a direct fashion, propionic acid is released to the environment through effluents from the manufacture, use, and disposal of coal-derived and shale oil liquid fuels as well as through wood-preserving chemical waste byproducts. Textile mills and sewage treatment facilities may also be sources of propionic acid-containing waste. Landfills and hazardous waste sites can leach propionic acid to groundwater supplies.
Propionic acid can exist as a vapor in the ambient atmosphere with a vapor pressure of 3.53 mmHg at 25 °C, and can be degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals; the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 11 days. Photolysis of propionic acid is not expected to be important, and wet deposition of propionic acid is expected to occur readily as an atmospheric removal process.
Biodegradation is likely to be the most important removal mechanism of propionic acid from both soil and water. In terrestrial environments, propionic acid will exist as a ratio of the free acid and its conjugate base due to its pKa of 4.87. With an estimated HenryK’s law constant of 4.15 ×10-7 atmm3 mol-1, it is not expected to volatilize from soil. Its mobility in soil is expected to be high, with an estimated Koc of 36. The high water solubility of propionic acid and its existence as a charged species result in low absorption by particulate and organic matter in aquatic environments.
- storageAlthough stable, propionic acid is flammable. It should be stored in an airtight container away from heat and flames.
- ShippingUN1848 Propionic acid, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material. UN3463 Propionic acid, with not ＜90% acid by mass, Hazard Class 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material, 3-Flammable liquid.
- Purification MethodsDry the acid with Na2SO4 or by fractional distillation, then redistil after refluxing with a few crystals of KMnO4. An alternative purification uses conversion to the ethyl ester, fractional distillation and hydrolysis. [Bradbury J Am Chem Soc 74 2709 1952.] Propionic acid can also be heated for 0.5hour with an amount of benzoic anhydride equivalent to the amount of water present (in the presence of CrO3 as catalyst), followed by fractional distillation. [Cham & Israel J Chem Soc 196 1960, Beilstein 2 IV 695.]
- Toxicity evaluationThe behavior of propionic acid is largely pH dependent, and it can alter the local pH in areas where it is applied or ingested. It can behave as a moderately strong acid when concentrated, and can be corrosive under such conditions. There has been some evidence that propionic acid inhibits CO2 production from palmitate in fibroblast cells and ureagenesis in rat liver slices. This is perhaps related to fatty degeneration of the liver and hyperammonemia in propionic and methylmalonic acidemia – an autosomal disorder that results from a defect of propionyl coenzyme A carboxylase. In the latter case, symptoms can include vomiting, lethargy, hypotonia, and metabolic ketoacidosis.
- IncompatibilitiesPropionic acid is a medium strong acid. Incompatible with sulfuric acid, strong bases; ammonia, isocyanates, alkylene oxides; epichlorohydrin. Reacts with bases; strong oxidizers; and amines, causing fire and explo- sion hazard. Attacks many metals forming flammable/ explosive hydrogen gas. It can be salted out of aqueous solutions by the addition of calcium chloride or other salts.
- Waste DisposalIncineration in admixture with flammable solvent.
- Regulatory StatusGRAS listed. Accepted for use in Europe as a food additive. In Japan, propionic acid is restricted to use as a flavoring agent.
Propionic acid Preparation Products And Raw materials
- Raw materialsOxygenCARBON MONOXIDEParaffin waxCupric acetate monohydrate PropionaldehydeMolassesCobalt naphthenate NICKEL CARBONYLManganese naphthenate
- Preparation ProductsMethyl propionateMetalaxyl3,4-DIAMINOQUINOLINEEthyl propionateCiprofloxacin4-AMINO-3-NITROQUINOLINEDL-AlanineDimethyl fumarateisoindoline-5-carboxylic acidSodium propionateEthyl 2-bromopropionate4-Chloro-3-nitroquinolineMETHYL ISOINDOLINE-5-CARBOXYLATEETHYL 3-PHENYLGLYCIDATE2-Bromoanthracene3-Chloropropionic acidPropanil 5-BROMOISOINDOLINE2-Methylhexanoic acid4-bromoisoindoline3-Methylquinoline2-Chloropropionic acidTiopronin6-BROMO-3,4-DIHYDRO-1H-QUINOLIN-2-ONENapropamideEthyl 2-chloropropionateSOLVENT YELLOW 85DL-2-Bromopropionic 2-Chloropropionyl chlorideCalcium dipropionate3-NITRO-4-QUINOLINOLLINALYL PROPIONATECITRONELLYL PROPIONATEPROPIONIC ACID POTASSIUM SALTIsobutyl propionateTERPINYL PROPIONATEBETA-(4-(ACETYLAMIDO)PHENOXY)PROPANOIC ACIDMethyl 2-chloropropionateDiclofop-methylFurfuryl thiopropionate
- Formic acid Acrylic acid 2-(3-AMINO-5-OXO-4,5-DIHYDRO-[1,2,4]TRIAZIN-6-YL)-PROPIONIC ACID ETHYL ESTER 2-(3,4-DIMETHYL-PHENOXY)-2-METHYL-PROPIONIC ACID 2-(3,5-DIMETHYL-PHENYLAMINO)-2-METHYL-PROPIONIC ACID 2-(3,5-DICHLORO-PHENYLAMINO)-PROPIONIC ACID 2-(3,5-DIOXO-4-AZA-TRICYCLO[22.214.171.124]DEC-8-EN-4-YL)-PROPIONIC ACID,2-(3,5-DIOXO-4-AZA-TRICYCLO[126.96.36.199(2,6)]DEC-8-EN-4-YL)-PROPIONIC ACID 2,3-DIBROMO-2-(4-BROMOPHENYL)PROPIONIC ACID 2-(3,4-DIFLUORO-PHENYLAMINO)-PROPIONIC ACID METHYL ESTER 2-(3,5-DIMETHYLPHENOXY)PROPIONIC ACID HYDRAZIDE 2-(3-CHLORO-PHENYLAMINO)-PROPIONIC ACID 2-(3,5-DIMETHYL-PHENYLAMINO)-PROPIONIC ACID 1,2,4-TRIAZOLE-1-PROPIONIC ACID,(1,2,4-TRIAZOLE)-1-YL-PROPIONIC ACID 2,3-DIOXO-3-(2-TRIFLUOROMETHYL-PHENYL)-PROPIONIC ACID TERT-BUTYL ESTER Clobetasol propionate 2-Bromopropionic acid Testosterone propionate Calcium Propionate
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