Denatonium Benzoate Anhydrous
Basic information The most bitter compound in the world Chemical structure Uses Safety Related Supplier
Denatonium Benzoate Anhydrous Chemical Properties
- Melting point:164-168 °C(lit.)
- Boiling point:555.91°C (rough estimate)
- Density 1.1256 (rough estimate)
- refractive index 1.5800 (estimate)
- Flash point:100℃
- solubility methanol: 50 mg/mL, clear, colorless
- Merck 14,2891
- BRN 8179408
- Stability:Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
- CAS DataBase Reference3734-33-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemDenatonium benzoate (3734-33-6)
- Language:EnglishProvider:Benzyldiethyl(2,6-xylylcarbamoylmethyl)ammonium benzoate
Denatonium Benzoate Anhydrous Usage And Synthesis
- The most bitter compound in the worldDenatonium benzoate is now known as the world's most bitter compound. If we set the bitter degree of quinine as datum 1, the degree of bitterness of the product would be 1000. A concentration of 10ppm solution is already too bitter to bear for most people. The vast majority of its applications are related to its bitter flavor. It is an inexpensive and efficient alternative to its counterparts such as strychnine, bitter lignin, quinine, wood song glycosides, saponins grapefruit.
Denatonium benzoate is commonly used as aversive agent to prevent people from eating other toxic but tasteless substance. For example, it has been added into industrial alcohol, ethylene glycol or methanol which has similar taste as ordinary wine, antifreeze, paint, toilet cleaners, animals disperse, liquid soaps and shampoos. Moreover, it has been also added into special nail polish agents, to avoid child’s bad habit of biting fingers, as well as being the repellent for expulsing large beasts. However, the effect of Long-term exposure to this substance on human health is still unclear.
- Chemical structureDenatonium benzoate is a kind of quaternary ammonium salt formed by the combination of the quaternary ammonium cation and inert anion such as benzoic acid or saccharin anion. The structure of its cation form is similar to that of a local anesthetic lidocaine with the only difference being an additional benzyl functional group located on the nitrogen atom of the amino.
- UsesFlavoring agent.
- Chemical Propertieswhite crystals
- Chemical PropertiesDenatonium benzoate occurs as an odorless, very bitter tasting, white crystalline powder or granules.
- UsesH1 antihistamine
- UsesPharmaceutic aid (alcohol denaturant; flavor). Added to toxic substances as a deterrent to accidental ingestion. Can replace brucine or quassin as denaturant for ethyl alcohol.
- Production MethodsDenatonium benzoate was first synthesized in the 1950s and is usually prepared by reacting denatonium chloride with benzyl benzoate.
- brand nameBitrex (Mac Farlan Smith, Scotland).
- Pharmaceutical ApplicationsDenatonium benzoate is among the most bitter of substances
known and is detectable at concentrations of approximately 10 ppb.
In pharmaceutical and other industrial applications it is added to
some products as a deterrent to accidental ingestion. It is most
commonly used at levels of 5–500 ppm. Denatonium benzoate may
also be used to replace brucine or quassin as a denaturant for
In pharmaceutical formulations, denatonium benzoate has been used as a flavoring agent in placebo tablets, and in a topical formulation it has been used in an anti-nailbiting preparation.
- SafetyDenatonium benzoate is generally regarded as a nonirritant and nonmutagenic substance.However,therehasbeenasinglereportof contact urticaria attributed to denatonium benzoate occurring in a 30-year-old man who developed asthma and pruritus after using an insecticidal spray denatured with denatonium benzoate.
LD50 (rabbit, oral): 0.508g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 0.584g/kg
- storageDenatonium benzoate is stable up to 140°C and over a wide pH range. It should be stored in a well-closed container (such as polythene-lined steel) in a cool, dry place. Aqueous or alcoholic solutions retaintheir bitterness forseveral years evenwhenexposed to light.
- IncompatibilitiesDenatonium benzoateis incompatible with strongoxidizing agents.
- Regulatory StatusDenatonium benzoate is used worldwide as a denaturant for alcohol. It is included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (topical gel and solution).
- Benzyltrimethylammonium chloride Benzyltriethylammonium chloride Ammonium chloride Ammonium benzoate Ammonium sulfate 4-Aminobenzoic acid Glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt Cisatracurium besylate Diethyl malonate ALTRENOGEST Phenylacetone Diethyl ether Benzyl bromide Benzyldodecyldimethylammonium bromide Anthranilic acid Benzyl benzoate Benzoic acid AMMONIUM
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- Company Name:Nantong Tianxiang Bioengineering Co., Ltd Gold
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- Company Name:Zhejiang Synose Tech Co., Ltd. Gold
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