ChemicalBook > Product Catalog > Inorganic chemistry > Inorganic salts > Carbides and carbonates > Silicon carbide
Silicon carbide Chemical Properties
- Melting point:2700 °C (lit.)
- Density 3.22 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)
- refractive index 2.6500
- solubility Soluble in molten sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and in molten iron.
- form nanopowder
- color Green
- Specific Gravity3.22
- Water Solubility Soluble in molten alkalis (NaOH, KOH) and molten iron. Insoluble in water.
- Crystal StructureCubic, Sphalerite Structure - Space Group F(-4)3m
- Hydrolytic Sensitivity1: no significant reaction with aqueous systems
- Merck 14,8492
- NIST Chemistry ReferenceSilicon monocarbide(409-21-2)
- IARC2A (Vol. 111) 2017
- EPA Substance Registry SystemSilicon carbide (409-21-2)
Silicon carbide Usage And Synthesis
- UsesSilicon carbide (SiC), nearly as hard as diamonds, is used as an abrasive in grinding wheels and metal-cutting tools, for lining furnaces, and as a refractory in producing nonferrous metals.
- DescriptionSilicon carbide is a hard covalently bonded material predominantly produced by the carbothermal reduction of silica. Silicon carbide is made by heating silica sand and petroleum coke packed around electrodes in an electric resistance furnace to above 2200°C. Depending on the exact reaction conditions the resulting silicon carbide is either a fine powder or a bonded mass that requires crushing and milling to produce a usable feedstock. This material is very resistant to abrasion and to corrosion with a molten slag. It also has excellent resistance to thermal spalling. However as it is a carbide, it will oxidise readily, silicon carbide has a fairly high conductivity.
Several hundred structures of silicon carbide (polytypes) have been identified which have different stacking arrangements for the silicon and carbon atoms. The simplest structure is a diamond structure which is designated /3-SiC. Other structures are either hexagonal or rhombic and are referred to as a-SiC.
- Chemical Propertieslight grey powder
- Chemical PropertiesSilicon carbide is a yellow to green to bluishblack, iridescent crystalline substance. Colorless when pure.
- Physical propertiesthe properties of silicon carbide are that it is a refractory material (high melting point), it has excellent thermal conductivity and low thermal expansion, consequently it displays good thermal shock resistance. In addition, the high hardness, corrosion resistance and stiffness lead to a wide range of applications where wear and corrosion resistance are primary performance requirements. Silicon carbide possesses interesting electrical properties due to its semiconductor characteristics, the resistance of different compositions varying by as much as seven orders of magnitude.
- CharacteristicsSilicon carbide is a premium-priced unit which is employed in lining work for its uniformity, abrasion resistance and dimensional stability. It is resistant to most organics, inorganic acids, alkalis and salts in a variety of concentrations except to hydrofluoric acid and acid fluorides. The permeable units have the lowest resistance.
- Uses▼▲IndustryApplicationRole/benefitAbrasive machining processesProcessing of glass, ceramic, stone, refractory, hard alloy, etc.Abrasive and cutting tools/durability and low costElectronicLight-emitting diodesComponent/electroluminescence propertySemiconductor devicesComponent/has wide forbidden band (2.86 EV) and p and n two conductive typesElectric systemsGapped SiC lightning arrestersResistance/voltage-dependent propertySic switches and SiC Schottky diodesRaw material/anti high-temperature and high-voltage propertiesCeramicsHard ceramics used for composite armor, bulletproof vests, etc.Raw material/low density and high strengthTemperature ceramicsRaw material/has high intensity at High temperatureAstronomyAstronomical telescopesMirror material/low thermal expansion coefficient, high hardness, rigidity and thermal conductivityAerospaceGas filter and combustion chamber nozzleRaw material/anti high-temperature propertySilicon carbide fibreReinforcing of metal,resin,alloy,glass,etc.Reinforcing material/helps to improve all kinds of featuresHeat shield material, high temperature filter cloth and conveyor beltRaw material/anti high-temperature propertyAutomobileBrake discsIngredient/helps to increase temperature resistanceSintered form for diesel particulate filtersIngredient/anti high-temperature propertyOil additiveHelps to educe friction, emissions, and harmonicsCarbonGraphene productionRaw materialManufacture of biocharCoating material/helps to improve the Hardness, strength and wear resistanceAlchemy blast furnace brickRaw material/anti high-temperature propertyGraphite electrode productionCoating component/increase the coating capacity of rapid temperature changeOthersThin filament pyrometryFilament material/anti high-temperature propertyNuclear fuel particlesIngredient/anti high-temperature propertyNuclear fuel claddingSynthetic moissanite gemstoneRaw material/similar to diamond in several important respectsSteel productionAdditional fuel/allows the furnace to process more scrap with the same charge of hot metalCatalyst supportSupport material/large surface areaCarborundum printmakingPaste material for ink plate
- UsesSilicon carbide is widely used as an abrasive in grinding and cutting glasses; in polishing glass and sharpening stones. It is used in the manufacture of porcelain, refractory brick, furnace linings, and emery paper. The compound also is used in semiconductor technology.
- UsesManufacture of abrasives and refractories, brake linings, heating elements, and thermistors.
- PreparationSilicon carbide is prepared by fusing a mixture of silica (sand) and carbon (coke) with some salt and saw dust in an electric arc furnace at 3000°C.
Salt and saw dust is added to infuse air into the product so that it can be broken into pieces easily. The product obtained is first washed with strong acid followed by strong base to remove basic and acidic impurities respectively. Finally, it is washed with water.
- DefinitionBluish-black, iridescent crystals. Insoluble in water and alcohol; soluble in fused alkalies and molten iron. Excellent thermal conductivity, electrically conductive, resists oxida- tion at high temperatures. Noncombustible, a nui- sance particulate.
- Production MethodsSilicon carbide, also known by the trade name Carborundum, has been manufactured and used as an abrasive material for more than a century. It combines desirable properties of hardness and thermal resistance. It is produced by heating high-grade silica sand with finely ground carbon at 2400°C in an electric furnace. In its powdered or granular form, it has been used as the abrasive material in “paper and wheels.” It is used as an abrasive in sandblasting and engraving. It has been incorporated into ceramics and glass and especially into refractory ceramic materials.
- General DescriptionYellow to green to bluish-black, iridescent crystals. Sublimes with decomposition at 2700°C. Density 3.21 g cm-3. Insoluble in water. Soluble in molten alkalis (NaOH, KOH) and molten iron.
- Reactivity ProfileSilicon carbide is non-combustible. Generally unreactive. Soluble in molten alkalis (NaOH, KOH) and in molten iron.
- HazardUpper respiratory tract irritant. Probable carcinogen.
- Health HazardSilicon carbide, in certain forms, may be a cause of pneumoconiosis in exposed workers. Silicon carbide has generally been considered to be an inert dust with little adverse effect on the lungs.
- Industrial usesSilicon carbide is one of the very few totally man-made minerals used in refractory work. These are:
Oxide-bonded-(S102, A1201, Si02 or silicate glass), silicon oxynitride (Si2 ON2), silicon nitride (S13N4)
The first three of these four bonding systems result in a permeable product, and when failure occurs in such masonry systems due to chemical degradation, it is usually due to attack on the bond. Thus, permeable units (where the corrodent penetrates the mass) are far more rapidly damaged.
Self-bonded”—(silicon carbide to silicon carbide) impermeable ones, where the attack is limited to the surface.
The self-bonded product can be manufactured by either of two methods: reaction bonded or sintered. Both will produce an impermeable unit, and they have roughly comparable chemical resistances, but they do not have identical physical properties.
- Safety ProfileSuspected carcinogen with experimental neoplastigenic data. A nuisance dust.
- Potential ExposureA potential danger to those involved in the manufacture of silicon carbide abrasives, refractories, and semiconductors. Silicon carbide fibers are also produced in fibrous form as reinforcing fibers for composite materials.
- IncompatibilitiesDust may form explosive mixture with air. Sublimes with decomposition @ 2700C.
- Waste DisposalLandfill
Silicon carbide Preparation Products And Raw materials
- Raw materialsCARBON MONOXIDEHYDROGEN SULFIDEGraphiteCarbon BlackSilicon dioxideArgonSilicon dioxideTetrachlorosilaneDichlorodimethylsilaneSilicon dioxideMethyltrichlorosilaneSILICON NITRIDE1,3-Bis(Chloromethyl)-1,1,3,3-Tetramethyldisiloxanesilicon carbide fibercarbosilane
- Preparation ProductsETHYLENE OXIDECarbon tetrafluoride
- NA Fiber Glass Wool Silica, fumed Calcium carbide Silicon carbide Emery silicon carbide SILICON CARBIDE SPUTTERING TARGET, 25.4MM (1.0IN) DIA X 3.18MM (0.125IN) THICK, 99.5% (METALS BASIS) Silicon carbide fibers Silicon Carbide (Crude) Aluminum nitride (AlN), solid soln. with silicon carbide (SiC) SILICON CARBIDE SPUTTERING TARGET, 50.8MM (2.0IN) DIA X 6.35MM (0.250IN) THICK, 99.5% (METALS BASIS) silicon carbide fiber Silicon carbide fluoride hydride (sicf3H3) Aluminum oxide-silicon carbide crucible, conical:Ht (mm), 42:Top ID(mm), 42:Base OD(mm), 29:Vol(ml), 50 SILICON CARBIDE SPUTTERING TARGET, 76.2MM (3.0IN) DIA X 3.18MM (0.125IN) THICK, 99.5% (METALS BASIS) SILICON CARBIDE, BC SILICON CARBIDE SPUTTERING TARGET, 76.2MM (3.0IN) DIA X 6.35MM (0.250IN) THICK, 99.5% (METALS BASIS) SILICON CARBIDE SPUTTERING TARGET, 50.8MM (2.0IN) DIA X 3.18MM (0.125IN) THICK, 99.5% (METALS BASIS)
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