Oseltamivir phosphate Chemical Properties
- Melting point:196-198°C
- storage temp. -20°C Freezer
- solubility H2O: soluble30mg/mL, clear
- form powder
- color white to beige
- optical activity[α]/D -26 to -36°, c = 1 in H2O
- CAS DataBase Reference204255-11-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
- HazardClass IRRITANT
- HS Code 2924299500
Oseltamivir phosphate Usage And Synthesis
- Anti-influenza virusOseltamivir phosphate is a kind of anti-influenza drugs, under the trade name Tamiflu. Its appearance exhibits as white to yellowish-white powder. It can be divided into type A (alpha) and B (Beta) selective inhibitor of the influenza virus neuraminidase and can prevent the release of virus from infected cells, through inhibiting the activity of the influenza virus neuraminidase, thus achieving the purpose of control of influenza symptoms. Clinically it can be used for treatment of the type A influenza and type B influenza in adults and children of 1 year old or over 1 year old as well as the clinical prevention of influenza A and B in adult and adolescent of 13 year old or over 13 years old.
Oseltamivir phosphate can subject to rapid metabolism into oselatamivr carboxylate after gastrointestinal absorption with 75% of the total oral administrated dose participating in the systemic circulation in the from of oselatamivr carboxylate. The active ingredient of this drug is a potent and unique neuraminidase inhibitors acting on all the processes of influenza virus infection, preventing the replication of all clinically relevant influenza virus strains A or B strain. It has obvious inhibitory effect even in nanomolar concentration in vitro. It has ben observed in vitro that the active metabolite can inhibit the growth of influenza virus as well as in vivo that it can inhibit the replication and pathogenicity of influenza virus. This product, through inhibiting the release of virus from infected cells, can reduce the spread of influenza A or B virus.
The above information is edited by the chemicalbook of Dai Xiongfeng.
- UsesAntibiotics and anti-virus
- DescriptionOseltamivir was launched in the US and Switzerland for the treatment of influenza infections by all common strain viruses. It can be obtained by at least 2 different ways including a novel 12-step synthesis from (-)-quinic acid. Oseltamivir is the ethyl ester prodrug of GS-4071, the corresponding acid, which is one of the most potent inhibitors of both influenza A and B virus neuraminidase (sialidase) isoenzymes; these glycoproteins are expressed on the virion surface and are essential for virus replication for both A and B strains. Oseltamivir emerged as one of the first two neuraminidase inhibitors to reach the market. GS-4071 demonstrated a low (< 5%) oral bioavailability in animals due to a poor absorption from the gastrointestinal barrier; by incorporating a more lipophilic ester group, the oral bioavailabilty can reach 30 to 100% in mice, rats and dogs. Following oral administration of Oseltamivir in rats, a similar concentration of GS-4071 was found in the bronchoalveolar lining fluid and the plasma which indicated a good penetration of the active compound into the lower respiratory tract. In mice, chickens and ferrets, orally administered Oseltamivir was found to have significant inhibitory effects on A and B influenza infections in protecting against a lethal challenge of virus and lessening virus titer in the lungs or nasal washings. In several clinical trials with patients receiving oral capsules daily, Oseltamivir was shown to be effective in reducing significantly the duration and severity of the clinical symptoms, including fever, cough and general malaise, in both early treatment and prevention.
- Chemical PropertiesWhite Cyrstalline Solid
- OriginatorGilead (US)
- UsesOrally active inhibitor of influenza virus neuraminidase; converted in vivo to the active acid metabolite. An antiviral drug.
- UsesOseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu) is a competitive neuraminidase inhibitor. The prodrug oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu) is itself not virally effective; however, once in the liver, it is converted by natural chemical processes, hydrolysed hepatically to its
- UsesAn antiviral agent
- brand nameTamiflu (Roche).
- General Descriptionreceptor site showed clearly that additional binding sitesexist for the C-5 acetamido carbonyl group and the arginineresidue at position 152 of the receptor site. In addition, the C-2 carboxyl group of sialic acid binds to Arg 118, Arg 292, andArg 371. Position C-6 is capable of undergoing a hydrophobicinteraction with various amino acids, including Glu, Ala,Arg, and Ile. Maximum binding to neuraminidase occurswhen the C-6 substituent is substituted with a nonpolar chain.In oseltamivir, this nonpolar group is 3-pentyl. An importantfeature of oseltamivir is the ethyl ester, which makes the drugorally efficacious. This drug is the first orally active agent foruse against influenza A and B. It is also indicated for the treatmentof acute illness. If administered within 2 days after theonset of influenza symptoms, the drug is effective.
- Veterinary Drugs and TreatmentsAlthough, there is no research published (at the time of writing—
January 2007) documenting oseltamivir safety or efficacy in dogs
or cats, there is much interest and discussion regarding its potential
for the adjunctive treatment of parvovirus infections in dogs.
It may be of benefit for adjunctive treatment of other viral infections,
particularly those with associated secondary bacterial components,
but research or experience is lacking. A recent study performed
in horses, experimentally infected with equine influenza A
(H3N8), documented some efficacy in the attenuation of clinical
signs (pyrexia), viral shedding, and secondary bacterial pneumonias
(Yamanaka, Tsujimura et al. 2006).
Because oseltamivir is the primary antiviral agent proposed for treatment or prophylaxis for an H5N1 influenza (“bird flu”) pandemic in humans, its use in veterinary patients is controversial, particularly due to concerns of adequate drug supply for the human population and the potential for influenza virus resistance development. In 2006, the FDA banned the extra-label use of oseltamivir and other influenza antivirals in chickens, turkeys and ducks. At the time of writing, its use is still allowed in mammal veterinary patients, but veterinarians should use the drug prudently and be cognizant of these public health concerns.
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