ChemicalBook > Product Catalog > API > Nervous system drugs > Cholinergic drugs > Choline bitartrate
Basic information Description Chemical Properties natural source Health Benefits Uses Side effects References Safety Related Supplier
Choline bitartrate Chemical Properties
- Melting point:151-153°C
- alpha [α]D20 +15～+18° (c=4, H2O)
- storage temp. Store at RT.
- PH3.0-4.4 (50g/l, H2O, 20°C)
- Water Solubility Soluble in alcohol and slightly soluble in water.
- Sensitive Hygroscopic
- CAS DataBase Reference87-67-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemCholine tartrate (1:1) (87-67-2)
Choline bitartrate Usage And Synthesis
- DescriptionCholine, a quaternary ammonium compound, is similar to the B vitamins. It can be made in the liver and found in foods such as liver, muscle meats, fish, nuts, beans, peas, spinach, wheat germ, and eggs. Choline is required to make essential membrane phospholipids. It is an important source of labile methyl groups and a precursor for the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine which is released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells. Choline is an essential nutrient for humans when excess methionine and folate are not available in the diet. It is used to treat liver diseases, including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. It is also used to treat depression, memory loss, Alzheimer-type dementias, Huntington's chorea, Tourette's disease, a brain disorder called cerebellar ataxia, certain types of seizures, and a mental condition called schizophrenia. Athletes use choline for bodybuilding and delaying fatigue in endurance sports. Choline is taken by pregnant women to prevent neural tube defects in their babies and is used as a supplement in infant formulas. Other uses include preventing cancer, lowering cholesterol, and controlling asthma. Choline is often linked together with tartaric acid (also known as bitrate) in many brain vitamin supplement formulas to improve its absorption rate into the body’s nervous system and eventually into the brain. A binding of these two brain vitamins together helps to synthesize compounds that are essential for the optimal health of membranes and nerve endings found in cells in the body.
- Chemical PropertiesCholine is available in various forms namely, choline bitartrate, choline citrate,choline chloride and others.
Choline Bitartrate (L(+) choline bitartrate) is a colorless or white crystal powder, which is a water-soluble part of the B Vitamin family.
The body needs B vitamins to manufacture neurotransmitters, chemicals that control alertness and mood by speeding nerve signals through the brain.
As B vitamins are water soluble, they are excreted in the urine and can be quickly depleted from the body. Only a small amount is stored in the body. Because of this, it is important that we take supplements to replenish these important vitamins in our body.
Choline bitartrate is an essential nutrient needed by the nervous system to produce acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that facilitates the transmission of impulses between neurons.
- natural sourcenatural source of Choline bitartrate: Egg yolk, peanuts, wheat germ, organ meats and legumes.
- Health BenefitsHealth Benefits of Choline Bitartrate:
Being a product of vitamin, it can be applied to medicine, healthcare product and food.
Choline Bitartrate is a nutritious additive and fat remover, enhance fatty metabolism and eliminate the accumulation of fat in liver.
Influence muscle contractions, movement, coordination and enhance memory.
Involved in higher level brain functions like memory, thought and intellect.
Is vital to the structural integrity of cell walls, the production of amino acids and proteins and the metabolism of fats.
Aid in the treatment of Alzheimer's Disease, manic depression and improve the symptoms of Parkinson's Disease.
Recommended Choline Bitartrate dosage is 500 mg to 3000 mg per day.
- UsesCholine is available as a dietary supplement as choline chloride or choline bitartrate and as lecithin, which usually contains approximately 25 percent phosphatidylcholine or 3 to 4 percent choline by weight.
Choline bitartrate and choline chloride are GRAS for use as a nutrient/dietary supplement in animal feed (21 CFR 582.5250, 21 CFR 582.5252).
The safety of choline bitartrate and choline chloride as nutritional ingredients has been well established by a GRAS evaluation.
Water-soluble choline salts choline chloride and choline bitartrate are very easily added to virtually any processed food or feed product, liquid, tablet or capsule. They have a long history of safe use and a minimal environmental impact in manufacture and use. Choline chloride and choline bitartrate deliver a greater bioavailable cation content (74 and 40%, respectively) than do naturally‐occuring forms (e.g. phosphatidylcholine, soybean meal, etc.), and they exhibit excellent stability and high bioavailability in virtually all applications.
- Side effectsCholine Bitartrate may be a useful dietary supplement for individuals wishing to increase their daily choline intake.
Choline and Phosphatidylcholine are well tolerated and extremely non-toxic.
Phosphatidylcholine supplementation can worsen depression in some cases.
At higher dosages, Phosphatidylcholine may cause reduced appetite, nausea, abdominal bloating, gastrointestinal pain, and diarrhea. Choline at high dosages (i.e. 20 gms) produces a fish odor.
Choline bitartrate and Choline chloride are also generally recognized as safe forms of Choline supplementation.
Choline is generally regarded as safe and appears to be well-tolerated. High intake of choline may cause low blood pressure, steatorrhea (undigested fat in stool), nausea, vomiting, salivation, diarrhea, constipation, anorexia, dizziness (vertigo), sweating, incomnia and headache. Choline can possibly trigger existing epilepsy. Dosages at the upper limit (UL) intake levels are contraindicated for person suffering from trimethylaminuria, Parkinson's disease, or kidney or liver disease.
- References http://www.brain-smart.net/brain-vitamins-101-what-is-choline-bitartrate/#axzz4eEBgGnNP
 S. H. Zeisel, K. A. Da Costa, P. D. Franklin, E. A. Alexander, J. T. Lamont, N. F. Sheard, A. Beiser (1991) Choline, an essential nutrient for humans, 5, 2093-2098
- Chemical PropertiesWhite cryst. powder
- UsesMedicine, dietary supplement, nutrient.
- Tetramethylammonium acetate Tetramethylammonium hydroxide pentahydrate TETRAMETHYLAMMONIUM FORMATE N,N-DIMETHYL(2-HYDROXYETHYL)AMMONIUM 2-HYDROXYACETATE AMMONIUM HYDROGEN TARTRATE L-CARNITINE TARTARIC SALT N,N-DIMETHYL(2-HYDROXYETHYL)AMMONIUM PROPIONATE L(+)-Tartaric acid D(-)-Tartaric acid 2-(METHYLSULFONYL)ETHANOL Choline Bitartrate Choline hydroxide Metoprolol tartrate Potassium Bitartrate L-Carnitine-L-tartrate Metaraminol bitartrate Choline bitartrate Choline chloride
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