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The name zircon may have originated from the Syriac word zargono, which describes the color of certain gemstones now known as zircon, jargon, hyacinth, jacinth, or ligure. This mineral, or its variations, is mentioned in biblical writings. These minerals were not known to contain this element until Klaproth, in 1789, analyzed a jargon from Sri Lanka and found a new earth, which Werner named zircon (silex circonius), and Klaproth called Zirkonerde (zirconia). The impure metal was first isolated by Berzelius in 1824 by heating a mixture of potassium and potassium zirconium fluoride in a small iron tube. Pure zirconium was first prepared in 1914. Very pure zirconium was first produced in 1925 by van Arkel and de Boer by an iodide decomposition process they developed. Zirconium is found in abundance in S-type stars, and has been identified in the sun and meteorites. Analyses of lunar rock samples obtained during the various Apollo missions to the moon show a surprisingly high zirconium oxide content, compared with terrestrial rocks. Naturally occurring zirconium contains five isotopes. Thirty-one other radioactive isotopes and isomers are known to exist. Zircon, ZrSiO4, the principal ore, is found in deposits in Florida, South Carolina, Australia, South Africa, and elsewhere. Baddeleyite, found in Brazil, is an important zirconium mineral. It is principally pure ZrO2 in crystalline form having a hafnium content of about 1%. Zirconium also occurs in some 30 other recognized mineral species. Zirconium is produced commercially by reduction of the chloride with magnesium (the Kroll Process), and by other methods. It is a grayish-white lustrous metal. When finely divided, the metal may ignite spontaneously in air, especially at elevated temperatures. The solid metal is much more difficult to ignite. The inherent toxicity of zirconium compounds is low. Hafnium is invariably found in zirconium ores, and the separation is difficult. Commercial-grade zirconium contains from 1 to 3% hafnium. Zirconium has a low absorption cross section for neutrons, and is therefore used for nuclear energy applications, such as for cladding fuel elements. Commercial nuclear power generation now takes more than 90% of zirconium metal production. Reactors of the size now being made may use as much as a half-million lineal feet of zirconium alloy tubing. Reactor-grade zirconium is essentially free of hafnium. Zircaloy? is an important alloy developed specifically for nuclear applications. Zirconium is exceptionally resistant to corrosion by many common acids and alkalis, by sea water, and by other agents. It is used extensively by the chemical industry where corrosive agents are employed. Zirconium is used as a getter in vacuum tubes, as an alloying agent in steel, in surgical appliances, photoflash bulbs, explosive primers, rayon spinnerets, lamp filaments, etc. It is used in poison ivy lotions in the form of the carbonate as it combines with urushiol. With niobium, zirconium is superconductive at low temperatures and is used to make superconductive magnets. Alloyed with zinc, zirconium becomes magnetic at temperatures below 35 K. Zirconium oxide (zircon) has a high index of refraction and is used as a gem material. The impure oxide, zirconia, is used for laboratory crucibles that will withstand heat shock, for linings of metallurgical furnaces, and by the glass and ceramic industries as a refractory material. Its use as a refractory material accounts for a large share of all zirconium consumed. Zirconium tungstate is an unusual material that shrinks, rather than expands, when heated. A few other compounds are known to possess this property, but they tend to shrink in one direction, while they stretch out in others in order to maintain an overall volume. Zirconium tungstate shrinks in all directions over a wide temperature range of from near absolute zero to +777°C. It is being considered for use in composite materials where thermal expansion may be a problem. Zirconium of about 99.5% purity is available at a cost of about $2000/kg or about $4/g.