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Name Glycolic acid
CAS 79-14-1
EINECS(EC#) 201-180-5
Molecular Formula C2H4O3
MDL Number MFCD00004312
Molecular Weight 76.05
MOL File 79-14-1.mol

Chemical Properties

Appearance colourless crystalline solid
Melting point  75-80 °C (lit.)
Boiling point  112 °C
density  1.25 g/mL at 25 °C
vapor pressure  10.8 hPa (80 °C)
refractive index  n20/D 1.424
Fp  112°C
storage temp.  Store below +30°C.
solubility  H2O: 0.1 g/mL, clear
form  Solution
pka 3.83(at 25℃)
color  White to off-white
PH 2 (50g/l, H2O, 20℃)
Stability: Stable. Incompatible with bases, oxidizing agents and reducing agents.
Water Solubility  SOLUBLE
Sensitive  Hygroscopic
Merck  14,4498
BRN  1209322
LogP -1.07 at 20℃
glycolic acid (hydroxyacetic acid) reduces corenocyte cohesion and corneum layer thickening where an excess buildup of dead skin cells can be associated with many common skin problems, such as acne, dry and severely dry skin, and wrinkles. glycolic acid acts by dissolving the internal cellular cement responsible for abnormal keratinization, facilitating the sloughing of dead skin cells. It also improves skin hydration by enhancing moisture uptake as well as increasing the skin’s ability to bind water. This occurs in the cellular cement through an activation of glycolic acid and the skin’s own hyaluronic acid content. Hyaluronic acid is known to retain an impressive amount of moisture and this capacity is enhanced by glycolic acid. As a result, the skin’s own ability to raise its moisture content is increased. glycolic acid is the simplest alpha hydroxyacid (AHA). It is also the AHA that scientists and formulators believe has greater penetration potential largely due to its smaller molecular weight. It is mildly irritating to the skin and mucous membranes if the formulation contains a high glycolic acid concentration and/ or a low pH. glycolic acid proves beneficial for acne-prone skin as it helps keep pores clear of excess keratinocytes. It is also used for diminishing the signs of age spots, as well as actinic keratosis. However, glycolic acid is most popularly employed in anti-aging cosmetics because of its hydrating, moisturizing, and skin-normalizing abilities, leading to a reduction in the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. Regardless of the G skin type, glycolic acid use is associated with softer, smoother, healthier, and younger looking skin. glycolic acid is naturally found in sugarcane but synthetic versions are most often used in cosmetic formulations.
CAS DataBase Reference 79-14-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference Acetic acid, hydroxy-(79-14-1)
EPA Substance Registry System 79-14-1(EPA Substance)

Safety Data

Hazard Codes  C
Risk Statements 
R34:Causes burns.
R22:Harmful if swallowed.
Safety Statements 
S26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice .
S36/37/39:Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection .
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible) .
S23:Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapor/spray (appropriate wording to be specified by the manufacturer) .
RIDADR  UN 3265 8/PG 3
WGK Germany  1
RTECS  MC5250000
HazardClass  8
PackingGroup  II
HS Code  29181990
Hazardous Substances Data 79-14-1(Hazardous Substances Data)
LD50 orally in rats: 1.95 g/kg, H. F. Smyth et al., J. Ind. Hyg. Toxicol. 23, 259 (1941)

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