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7757-79-1

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Identification

Name
Potassium nitrate
CAS
7757-79-1
Synonyms
FILLING SOLUTION FOR CYANIDE OR SULFIDE ELECTRODE
FILLING SOLUTION FOR FLUORIDE ELECTRODE
FILLING SOLUTION FOR SALT BRIDGES AND DOUBLE-JUNCTION ELECTRODES
KNO3
NITRATE NITROGEN
NITRATE NITROGEN STANDARD
NITRIC ACID POTASSIUM SALT
POTASSIUM ICP STANDARD, KNO3
POTASSIUM ION CHROMATOGRAPHY STANDARD
POTASSIUM NITRATE
POTASSIUM NITRATE, CYANIDE ISE
SALTPETER
collo-bo
kaliinitras
kaliumnitrat
nitrateofpotash
nitre
vicknite
Filling solution for chloride combination electrode (10% KNO3, trace AgCl, KCl)
Filling solution for cyanide or sulfide electrode (10% KNO3, trace AgCl, KCl)
EINECS(EC#)
231-818-8
Molecular Formula
KNO3
MDL Number
MFCD00011409
Molecular Weight
101.1
MOL File
7757-79-1.mol

Chemical Properties

Appearance
Potassium nitrate is an odorless, white or colorless crystalline powder with a salty, taste.
Appearance
White solid
mp 
334 °C(lit.)

bp 
100 °C750 mm Hg

density 
1.00 g/mL at 20 °C

Fp 
400°C
storage temp. 
Store at RT.
solubility 
H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless

Stability:
Stable. Strong oxidizer-contact with combustible material may cause fire. Incompatible with combustible materials, strong reducing agents.
Water Solubility 
320 g/L (20 ºC)
Sensitive 
Hygroscopic
Merck 
14,7648
Uses
Potassium Nitrate is a preservative and color fixative in meats which exists as colorless prisms or white granules or powder. it has a solubility of 1 g in 3 ml of water at 25°c. see nitrate.
Uses
This natural substance is the product of the decomposition of lime and urine. The white granules or powder are soluble in water 1:3 but insoluble in alcohol. Potassium nitrate, also called saltpeter or nitre, was combined with sulfuric acid to nitrate cotton for the manufacture of collodion. It was also used with magnesium to make flash powder and added to ferrous sulfate developers to produced cool white tones in collodion positives.
CAS DataBase Reference
7757-79-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
EPA Substance Registry System
7757-79-1(EPA Substance)

Safety Data

Hazard Codes 
O,Xi,Xn
Risk Statements 
R8:Contact with combustible material may cause fire.
R36/38:Irritating to eyes and skin .
R36/37/38:Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin .
R22:Harmful if swallowed.
Safety Statements 
S26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice .
S17:Keep away from combustible material .
S36:Wear suitable protective clothing .
S7:Keep container tightly closed .
S24/25:Avoid contact with skin and eyes .
RIDADR 
UN 3264 8/PG 3

WGK Germany 
1

RTECS 
TT3700000

HazardClass 
5.1
PackingGroup 
III
HS Code 
28342100
Safety Profile
Poison by intravenous route. Moderately toxic by ingestion. An experimental teratogen. Experimental reproductive effects. Mutation data reported. Ingestion of large quantities may cause gastroenteritis. Chronic exposure can cause anemia, nephritis, and methemoglobinemia. When heated, reaction with calcium hydroxide + polychlorinated phenols forms extremely toxic chlorinated benzodtoxins. A powerful oxidizer. Gunpowder is a mixture of potassium nitrate + sulfur + charcoal. Explosive reaction with aluminum + barium nitrate + potassium perchlorate + water (in storage), boron + laminac + trichloroethylene. Forms explosive mixtures with lactose, powdered metals (e.g., titanium, antimony, germanium), metal sulfides (e.g., antimony trisulfide, barium sulfide, calcium sulfide, germanium monosulfide, titanium disulfide, arsenic disulfide, molybdenum disulfide), nonmetals (e.g., boron, carbon, white phosphorus, arsenic), organic materials, phosphides (e.g., copper(l1) phosphide, copper monophosphide), reducing agents (e.g., sodium phosphinate, sodium thiosulfate), sodium acetate. Can react violently under the appropriate conditions with 1,3- bis(trichlorometh~d)benzene, boron phosphde, F2, calcium shcide, charcoal, chromium nitride, Na hypophosphte, ma2O2 + dextrose), red phosphorus, (S + As2S3), thorium dicarbide, trichloroethylene, zinc, zirconium. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of NOx and K2O. See also NITRATES.
Hazardous Substances Data
7757-79-1(Hazardous Substances Data)

Raw materials And Preparation Products

Hazard Information

General Description
A white to dirty gray crystalline solid. Water soluble. Noncombustible, but accelerates the burning of combustible materials. If large quantities are involved in fire or the combustible material is finely divided an explosion may result. May explode under prolonged exposure to heat or fire. Toxic oxides of nitrogen are produced in fires. Used in solid propellants, explosives, fertilizers.
Reactivity Profile
POTASSIUM NITRATE(7757-79-1) mixed with alkyl esters may explode, owing to the formation of alkyl nitrates; mixtures with phosphorus, tin (II) chloride, or other reducing agents may react explosively [Bretherick 1979. p. 108-109]. Powdered antimony mixed with POTASSIUM NITRATE(7757-79-1) explodes when heated [Mellor 9:282 1946-47]. A mixture of antimony trisulfide and POTASSIUM NITRATE(7757-79-1) explodes at a red heat [Mellor 9:524. 1946-47]. Arsenic disulfide forms explosive mixtures when mixed with POTASSIUM NITRATE(7757-79-1), [Mellor 9:270.1946-47]. A mixture of sodium acetate and POTASSIUM NITRATE(7757-79-1) may cause an explosion [Pieters 1957. p. 30]. A mixture of POTASSIUM NITRATE(7757-79-1) and sodium hypophosphite constitutes a powerful explosive [Mellor 8:881. 1946-47]. A mixture of powdered zirconium and POTASSIUM NITRATE(7757-79-1) explodes when heated above the melting point [Mellor 7:116. 1946-47].
Air & Water Reactions
Soluble in water.
Hazard
Dangerous fire and explosion risk when shocked or heated, or in contact with organic mate- rials, strong oxidizing agent.
Health Hazard
Exposure can cause mild irritation of eyes, nose and throat.
Potential Exposure
Used to make explosives, gunpowder, fireworks, rocket fuel; matches, fertilizer, fluxes, glass manufacture; and as a diuretic
First aid
If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medi- cal attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin res- cue breathing (using universal precautions, including resusci- tation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit.

Shipping
UN1486 Potassium nitrate, Hazard Class: 5.1; Labels: 5.1-Oxidizer.
Incompatibilities
A powerful oxidizer. Dangerously reactive and friction-and shock-sensitive when mixed with organic materials and many materials. Violent reactions with reducing agents; chemically active metals; charcoal, trichloroethylene.

Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)

Questions And Answer

Description
Potassium nitrate (chemical formula: KNO3) is the nitrate of potassium. It is a crystalline salt and a strong oxidizer which can be specially used in making gunpowder, as a fertilizer, and in medicine. It can be manufactured through the reaction between ammonium nitrate and potassium hydroxide, and alternatively through the reaction between ammonium nitrate with potassium chloride. Potassium nitrate has various applications. Its major applications include: fertilizer, tree stump removal, rocket propellant and fireworks. It can also be used for the nitric acid production. It is also useful for food preservation and food preparation. In pharmacology, it can be used to treat asthma and relieving high blood pressure.
Potassium nitrate
Uses
  1. Potassium nitrate is used chiefly in the manufacture of gunpowder or other explosives, but is also used for fireworks,for lucifer matches, for curing meat, for manufacture of certain kinds of glass, for flux in metallurgical assays, for some dyeing, and in medicine.
  2. In agriculture, potassium nitrate is used as a water-soluble and virtually chloride-free source of nitrate-nitrogen and potassium nutrients. Due to the product's specific characteristics and benefits, target markets are related to high-value crops such as vegetables, fruits and flowers. Furthermore, chloride-sensitive crops, such as potato, strawberry, beans, cabbage, lettuce, peanut, carrot, onion, blackberry tobacco, apricot, grapefruit and avocado, will depend for their quality on the use of chloride-free K sources, such as potassium nitrate.
  3. Potassium nitrate is used in a wide variety of applications including glass manufacturing, explosives for mining and civil works, metal treatment, fireworks, and recently, as a means to drastically increase the efficiency of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants as described in the following paragraph.

potassium nitrate fertilizer
Potassium nitrate is a water-soluble NK fertilizer containing 13.7% nitrate nitrogen and 46% potassium oxide (38.4%). Potassium nitrate (KNO3) is a soluble source of two major essential plant nutrients. It’s commonly used as a fertilizer for high-value crops that benefit from nitrate (NO3-) nutrition and a source of potassium (K+) free of chloride (Cl-).
Production
Manufacturers typically make potassium nitrate fertilizer (sometimes referred to as nitrate of potash or NOP by reacting potassium chloride (KCl) with a nitrate source. Depending on the objectives and available resources, the nitrate may come from sodium nitrate, nitric acid or ammonium nitrate. The resulting KNO3 is identical regardless of the manufacturing process. Potassium nitrate is commonly sold as a water-soluble, crystalline material primarily intended for dissolving and applying with water or in a prilled form for soil application. Traditionally, this compound is known as saltpeter.
Application
Growers value fertilizing with KNO3 especially in conditions where a highly soluble, chloride-free nutrient source is needed. In such soils, all of the N is immediately available for plant uptake as nitrate, requiring no additional microbial action and soil transformation. Growers of high-value vegetable and orchard crops sometime prefer to use a nitrate-based source of nutrition in an effort to boost yield and quality. Potassium nitrate contains a relatively high proportion of K, with an N to K ratio of approximately one to three. Many crops have high K demands and can remove as much or more K than N at harvest. Applications of KNO3 to the soil are made before the growing season or as a supplement during the growing season. A diluted solution is sometimes sprayed on plant foliage to stimulate physiological processes or to overcome nutrient deficiencies. Foliar application of K during fruit development  advantages some crops, since this growth stage often coincides with high K demands during the time of declining root activity and nutrient uptake. It’s also commonly used for greenhouse plant production and hydroponic culture. Potassium nitrate accounts for only a small portion of the global K fertilizer market. It’s primarily used where its unique composition and properties can provide specific benefits to growers. Further, it’s easy to handle and apply, and is compatible with many other fertilizers, including specialty fertilizers for many high-value specialty crops, as well as those used on grain and fiber crops.
References
  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potassium_nitrate
  2. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/potassium_nitrate#section=Top
  3. http://www.cropnutrition.com/potassium-nitrate

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