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Name Bromine
CAS 7726-95-6
EINECS(EC#) 231-778-1
Molecular Formula Br2
MDL Number MFCD00010896
Molecular Weight 159.81
MOL File 7726-95-6.mol

Chemical Properties

Definition Nonmetallic halogen element of atomic number 35, group VIIA of the periodic table. Valences 1, 3, 5 (valence of 7 also reported). There are two stable isotopes.
Appearance Bromine is a fuming red to dark reddishbrown, nonflammable, volatile liquid with a suffocating odor. Soluble in water and alcohol.
Melting point  −7.2 °C(lit.)
Boiling point  58.8 °C(lit.)
density  3.119 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density  7.14 (vs air)
vapor pressure  175 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
Fp  113 °C
storage temp.  2-8°C
solubility  35g/l
form  Liquid
color  Red-brown
Specific Gravity 3.119
Odor Odor can be detected at concentrations as low as 0.05 ppm; exposure to concentrations below 1 ppm causes lacrimation.
Stability: Stable. Incompatible with reducing agents, alkali metals, powdered metals, steel, iron, copper, organic materials.
Resistivity 7.8E18 μΩ-cm, 20°C
Water Solubility  35 g/L (20 ºC)
Merck  13,1378
Exposure limits TLV-TWA 0.1 ppm (0.7 mg/m3) (ACGIH, MSHA, NIOSH, and OSHA); TLV-STEL 0.3 ppm (ACGIH); IDLH 10 ppm (NIOSH).
History Bromine was discovered by Balard in 1826, but not prepared in quantity until 1860. A member of the halogen group of elements, it is obtained from natural brines from wells in Michigan and Arkansas. Little bromine is extracted today from seawater, which contains only about 85 ppm. Bromine is the only liquid nonmetallic element. Bromine is a heavy, mobile, reddish-brown liquid, volatilizing readily at room temperature to a red vapor with a strong disagreeable odor, resembling chlorine, and having a very irritating effect on the eyes and throat; it is readily soluble in water or carbon disulfide, forming a red solution, is less active than chlorine but more so than iodine; it unites readily with many elements and has a bleaching action; when spilled on the skin it produces painful sores. Bromine presents a serious health hazard, and maximum safety precautions should be taken when handling it. Much of the bromine output in the U.S. was used in the production of ethylene dibromide, a lead scavenger used in making gasoline antiknock compounds. Lead in gasoline, however, has been drastically reduced, due to environmental considerations. This will greatly affect future production of bromine. Bromine is also used in making fumigants, flameproofing agents, water purification compounds, dyes, medicinals, sanitizers, inorganic bromides for photography, etc. Organic bromides are also important. Natural bromine is made of two isotopes, 79Br and 81Br. Thirty-four isotopes and isomers are known. Bromine (99.8%) costs about $70/kg.
CAS DataBase Reference 7726-95-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference Bromine(7726-95-6)
EPA Substance Registry System 7726-95-6(EPA Substance)

Safety Data

Hazard Codes  T+,C,N,T
Risk Statements 

R26:Very Toxic by inhalation.
R35:Causes severe burns.
R50:Very Toxic to aquatic organisms.
R40:Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect.
R22:Harmful if swallowed.
R45:May cause cancer.

Safety Statements 

S26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice .
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible) .
S61:Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions safety data sheet .
S7/9:Keep container tightly closed and in a well-ventilated place .
S36/37/39:Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection .
S28:After contact with skin, wash immediately with plenty of ... (to be specified by the manufacturer) .
S53:Avoid exposure-obtain special instruction before use .

RIDADR  UN 1744 8/PG 1
WGK Germany  2
RTECS  EF9100000
HazardClass  8
PackingGroup  I
HS Code  28013020
Hazardous Substances Data 7726-95-6(Hazardous Substances Data)

LD50 oral (rat) 2600 mg/kg
LC50 inhal (rat) 2700 mg/m3
PEL (OSHA) 0.1 ppm
TLV-TWA (ACGIH) 0.1 ppm (0.7 mg/m3)
STEL (ACGIH) 0.3 ppm (2 mg/m3)

Hazard Information

Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)

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