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7726-95-6

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Identification

Name
Bromine
CAS
7726-95-6
EINECS(EC#)
231-778-1
Molecular Formula
Br2
MDL Number
MFCD00010896
Molecular Weight
159.81
MOL File
7726-95-6.mol

Chemical Properties

Definition
Nonmetallic halogen element of atomic number 35, group VIIA of the periodic table. Valences 1, 3, 5 (valence of 7 also reported). There are two stable isotopes.
Appearance
Red brown liquid
Appearance
Bromine is a fuming red to dark reddishbrown, nonflammable, volatile liquid with a suffocating odor. Soluble in water and alcohol.
mp 
−7.2 °C(lit.)

bp 
58.8 °C(lit.)

density 
3.119 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)

vapor density 
7.14 (vs air)

vapor pressure 
175 mm Hg ( 20 °C)

Fp 
113 °C
storage temp. 
2-8°C

Stability:
Stable. Incompatible with reducing agents, alkali metals, powdered metals, steel, iron, copper, organic materials.
Water Solubility 
35 g/L (20 ºC)
Merck 
13,1378
History
Bromine was discovered by Balard in 1826, but not prepared in quantity until 1860. A member of the halogen group of elements, it is obtained from natural brines from wells in Michigan and Arkansas. Little bromine is extracted today from seawater, which contains only about 85 ppm. Bromine is the only liquid nonmetallic element. Bromine is a heavy, mobile, reddish-brown liquid, volatilizing readily at room temperature to a red vapor with a strong disagreeable odor, resembling chlorine, and having a very irritating effect on the eyes and throat; it is readily soluble in water or carbon disulfide, forming a red solution, is less active than chlorine but more so than iodine; it unites readily with many elements and has a bleaching action; when spilled on the skin it produces painful sores. Bromine presents a serious health hazard, and maximum safety precautions should be taken when handling it. Much of the bromine output in the U.S. was used in the production of ethylene dibromide, a lead scavenger used in making gasoline antiknock compounds. Lead in gasoline, however, has been drastically reduced, due to environmental considerations. This will greatly affect future production of bromine. Bromine is also used in making fumigants, flameproofing agents, water purification compounds, dyes, medicinals, sanitizers, inorganic bromides for photography, etc. Organic bromides are also important. Natural bromine is made of two isotopes, 79Br and 81Br. Thirty-four isotopes and isomers are known. Bromine (99.8%) costs about $70/kg.
CAS DataBase Reference
7726-95-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Bromine(7726-95-6)
EPA Substance Registry System
7726-95-6(EPA Substance)

Safety Data

Hazard Codes 
T+,C,N,T
Risk Statements 
R26:Very Toxic by inhalation.
R35:Causes severe burns.
R50:Very Toxic to aquatic organisms.
R40:Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect.
R22:Harmful if swallowed.
R45:May cause cancer.
Safety Statements 
S26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice .
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible) .
S61:Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions safety data sheet .
S7/9:Keep container tightly closed and in a well-ventilated place .
S36/37/39:Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection .
S28:After contact with skin, wash immediately with plenty of ... (to be specified by the manufacturer) .
S53:Avoid exposure-obtain special instruction before use .
RIDADR 
UN 1744 8/PG 1

WGK Germany 
2

RTECS 
EF9100000

HazardClass 
8
PackingGroup 
I
HS Code 
28013020
Hazardous Substances Data
7726-95-6(Hazardous Substances Data)

Raw materials And Preparation Products

Hazard Information

General Description
A reddish-brown aqueous solution. The solubility of bromine in water equals 0.33 mg/ mL.
Reactivity Profile
BROMINE SOLUTION is an oxidizing agent. Bromine disproportionates rapidly in basic water to give bromide ion and bromate ion. The latter is also an oxidizing agent. Dissolution lowers reactivity compared to pure bromine. Reacts with reducing reagents. Reacts with hydrogen, diethylzinc, dimethylformamide, ammonia, trimethylamine, nitromethane, metal azides (silver or sodium azide). Can react with Mg, Sr, B, Al, Hg, Ti, Sn, Sb in powder or sheet form, to form bromides. Can react with methanol, ethanol, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, diethyl ether, carbonyl compounds, tetrahydrofuran, acrylonitrile, ozone, phosphorus, natural rubber. Reactions with red phosphorus, metal azides, nitromethane, silane and its homologues may be vigorous.[Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p. 109].
Air & Water Reactions
Slightly soluble in water.
Hazard
Toxic by ingestion and inhalation, severe skin irritant. Strong oxidizing agent, may ignite combustible materials on contact. Upper and lower respiratory tract irritant, and lung damage.
Health Hazard
TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution.
Potential Exposure
Bromine is primarily used in the manufacture of gasoline antiknock compounds (1,2-dibromoethane). Other uses are for gold extraction; in brominating hydrocarbons; in bleaching fibers and silk; in the manufacture of military gas, dyestuffs; and as an oxidizing agent. It is used in the manufacture of many pharmaceuticals and pesticides.
First aid
Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. Medical observation is recommended for 24 to 48 hours after breathing overexposure, as pulmonary edema may be delayed. As first aid for pulmonary edema, a doctor or authorized paramedic may consider administering a drug or other inhalation therapy.
Fire Hazard
Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.
Shipping
Bromine UN1744 Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8— Corrosive material; 6.1—Poison Inhalation Hazard, Inhalation Hazard Zone A. Bromine solutions, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8—Corrosives materials; 6.1—Poison Inhalation Hazard, Inhalation Hazard Zone A; Bromine solutions, Hazard class: 8 Labels: 8—Corrosive material; 6.1—Poison Inhalation Hazard, Inhalation Hazard Zone B.
Incompatibilities
A powerful oxidizer. May cause fire and explosions in contact with organic or other readily oxidizable materials. Contact with aqueous ammonia, acetaldehyde, acetylene, acrylonitrile, or with metals, may cause violent reactions. Anhydrous Br2 reacts with aluminum, titanium, mercury, potassium; wet Br2 with other metals. Also incompatible with alcohols, antimony, alkali hydroxides, arsenites, boron, calcium nitrite, cesium monoxide, carbonyls, dimethyl formamide, ethyl phosphine, fluorine, ferrous and mercurous salts; germanium, hypophosphites, iron carbide, isobutyronphenone, magnesium phosphide, methanol, nickel carbonyl, olefins, ozone, sodium and many other substances. Attacks some coatings, and some forms of plastic and rubber. Corrodes iron, steel, stainless steel; and copper.
Waste Disposal
Large volumes of concentrated solutions of reducing agents (bisulfites or ferrous salts) may be added. The mixture is neutralized with soda ash or dilute HCl and flushed to the sewer with large volumes of water.

Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)

msds information
bromine(7726-95-6).msds

Spectrum Detail

Spectrum Detail
Bromine(7726-95-6) ESR

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