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7704-34-9

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Identification

Name
Sulfur
CAS
7704-34-9
Synonyms
AMMONIUM SULFATE
COLLOIDAL SULFUR
COSAN
FLOWERS OF SULFUR
FLOWERS OF SULPHUR
KUMULUS DF
LAC SULFUR
MICROTHIOL SPECIAL
RASULF
SULFEX
SULFUR
SULFUR, AAS STANDARD SOLUTION
SULFUR AD USUM EXTERNUM
SULFUR ATOMIC ABSORPTION STANDARD
SULFUR, COLLOIDAL
SULFUR FLOWERS
SULFUR ICP/DCP STANDARD
SULFUR ICP STANDARD
SULFUR LAC
SULFUR METALLO-ORGANIC STANDARD
EINECS(EC#)
231-722-6
Molecular Formula
S8
MDL Number
MFCD00085316
Molecular Weight
256.52
MOL File
7704-34-9.mol

Chemical Properties

Appearance
Sulfur is a yellow crystalline solid or powder. Often transported in the molten state.
Appearance
yellow powder
mp 
114 °C
bp 
445 °C
density 
2.36
vapor density 
8.9 (vs air)

vapor pressure 
1 mm Hg ( 183.8 °C)

Fp 
168 °C
form 
powder

Water Solubility 
Insoluble
Merck 
13,9059/13,9067
History
Sulfur is found in meteorites. A dark area near the crater Aristarchus on the moon has been studied by R. W. Wood with ultraviolet light. This study suggests strongly that it is a sulfur deposit. Sulfur occurs native in the vicinity of volcanoes and hot springs. It is widely distributed in nature as iron pyrites, galena, sphalerite, cinnabar, stibnite, gypsum, Epsom salts, celestite, barite, etc. Sulfur is commercially recovered from wells sunk into the salt domes along the Gulf Coast of the U.S. It is obtained from these wells by the Frasch process, which forces heated water into the wells to melt the sulfur, which is then brought to the surface. Sulfur also occurs in natural gas and petroleum crudes and must be removed from these products. Formerly this was done chemically, which wasted the sulfur. New processes now permit recovery, and these sources promise to be very important. Large amounts of sulfur are being recovered from Alberta gas fields. Sulfur is a pale yellow, odorless, brittle solid that is insoluble in water but soluble in carbon disulfide. In every state, whether gas, liquid or solid, elemental sulfur occurs in more than one allotropic form or modification; these present a confusing multitude of forms whose relations are not yet fully understood. Amorphous or “plastic” sulfur is obtained by fast cooling of the crystalline form. X-ray studies indicate that amorphous sulfur may have a helical structure with eight atoms per spiral. Crystalline sulfur seems to be made of rings, each containing eight sulfur atoms that fit together to give a normal X-ray pattern. Twenty-one isotopes of sulfur are now recognized. Four occur in natural sulfur, none of which is radioactive. A finely divided form of sulfur, known as flowers of sulfur, is obtained by sublimation. Sulfur readily forms sulfides with many elements. Sulfur is a component of black gunpowder, and is used in the vulcanization of natural rubber and a fungicide. It is also used extensively is making phosphatic fertilizers. A tremendous tonnage is used to produce sulfuric acid, the most important manufactured chemical. It is used in making sulfite paper and other papers, as a fumigant, and in the bleaching of dried fruits. The element is a good electrical insulator. Organic compounds containing sulfur are very important. Calcium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, carbon disulfide, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide are but a few of the many other important compounds of sulfur. Sulfur is essential to life. It is a minor constituent of fats, body fluids, and skeletal minerals. Carbon disulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and sulfur dioxide should be handled carefully. Hydrogen sulfide in small concentrations can be metabolized, but in higher concentrations it can quickly cause death by respiratory paralysis. It is insidious in that it quickly deadens the sense of smell. Sulfur dioxide is a dangerous component in atmospheric pollution. Sulfur (99.999%) costs about $575/kg.
Uses
sulfur (colloidal) reduces oil-gland activity and dissolves the skin’s surface layer of dry, dead cells. This ingredient is commonly used in acne soaps and lotions, and is a major component in many acne preparations. It can cause allergic skin reactions.
Uses
sulfur is a mild anti-septic used in acne creams and lotions. It stimulates healing when used on skin rashes. Sulfur may cause skin irritation.
CAS DataBase Reference
7704-34-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Sulfur atom(7704-34-9)
EPA Substance Registry System
7704-34-9(EPA Substance)

Safety Data

Hazard Codes 
F
Risk Statements 
R11:Highly Flammable.
Safety Statements 
S16:Keep away from sources of ignition-No smoking .
S26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice .
RIDADR 
UN 1350 4.1/PG 3

WGK Germany 
1

RTECS 
WS4250000

HazardClass 
4.1
PackingGroup 
III
HS Code 
28020000
Safety Profile
Poison by ingestion, intravenous, and intraperitoneal routes. A human eye irritant. A fungcide. Chronic inhalation can cause irritation of mucous membranes. Combustible when exposed to heat or flame or by chemical reaction with oxidzers. Explosive in the form of dust when exposed to flame. Can react violently with halogens, carbides, halogenates, halogenites, zinc, uranium, tin, sodium, lithium, nickel, palladium, phosphorus, potassium, indum, calcium, boron, aluminum, (aluminum + niobium pentoxide), ammonia, ammonium nitrate, ammonium perchlorate, BrF5, BrF3, (Ca + VO + H20), Ca(OCl)2, Cad%, Cs3N, charcoal, (Cu + chlorates), ClO2, Cl0, ClF3, CrO3, Cr(OCl)2, hydrocarbons, IF5,IO5, Pb02, Hg(NO3)2, HgO, Hg20, NO2, P2O3, (KNO3 + As2S3), K3N, KMn04, AgNO3, Ag20, NaH, (NaNO3 + charcoal), (Na + SnI4), SCl2, T12O3, F2. Can react with oxidzing materials. To fight fire, use water or special mixtures of dry chemical. When heated it burns and emits highly toxic fumes of SOX. See also NUISANCE DUSTS.
Hazardous Substances Data
7704-34-9(Hazardous Substances Data)

Raw materials And Preparation Products

Raw materials
Acetic acid glacial-->Sodium carbonate-->Ammonia-->Carbon disulphide-->CARBON MONOXIDE-->HYDROGEN SULFIDE-->Sulphur-->Sodium hydrosulfide-->Titanium dioxide-->Phenolic epoxy resin-->Talc-->Bifenthrin-->Vanadium pentoxide -->4-Hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid-->PYRITE-->Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate-->Potassium sodium tartrate -->Heat exchanger-->Carbon monoxide and hydrogen mixtures
Preparation Products
ETHYL 5-METHYL-4-OXO-3,4-DIHYDROTHIENO[2,3-D]-PYRIMIDINE-6-CARBOXYLATE-->5,6-DIMETHYLTHIENO[2,3-D]PYRIMIDIN-4(3H)-ONE-->ETHYL 2-AMINO-4-(4-METHOXYPHENYL)-3-THIOPHENECARBOXYLATE-->Ethylicin-->Sulfur Red Brown B3R-->Sulfur hexafluoride-->2-AMINO-5,6-DIHYDRO-4H-CYCLOPENTA[B]THIOPHENE-3-CARBONITRILE-->2-AMINO-6-METHYL-4,5,6,7-TETRAHYDRO-1-BENZOTHIOPHENE-3-CARBONITRILE-->1,2,3,5-TETRAHYDRO-8-THIA-5,7-DIAZA-CYCLOPENTA[A]INDENE-4-ONE-->ETHYL 2-AMINO-4,5-DIMETHYLTHIOPHENE-3-CARBOXYLATE-->5-AMINO-4-CYANO-3-METHYL-THIOPHENE-2-CARBOXYLIC ACID ETHYL ESTER-->4-Bromophenethyl alcohol-->2-AMINO-5-ISOPROPYL-THIOPHENE-3-CARBOXYLIC ACID ETHYL ESTER-->2-AMINO-4-ETHYL-5-METHYL-THIOPHENE-3-CARBOXYLIC ACID ETHYL ESTER-->2-AMINO-4,5,6,7-TETRAHYDRO-1-BENZOTHIOPHENE-3-CARBONITRILE-->2-AMINO-3-CYANO-4-METHYL-5-CARBMETHOXY THIOPHENE-->5-AMINO-3-METHYL-THIOPHENE-2,4-DICARBOXYLIC ACID DIMETHYL ESTER-->ETHYL 2-AMINO-4-METHYLTHIOPHENE-3-CARBOXYLATE-->2-AMINO-5-PHENYL-THIOPHENE-3-CARBOXYLIC ACID METHYL ESTER-->2-AMINO-5-TERT-BUTYL-THIOPHENE-3-CARBOXYLIC ACID ETHYL ESTER-->2-(2-PYRIDYL)BENZIMIDAZOLE-->1,3-DITHIOLE-2-THIONE-->2-AMINO-5-METHYL-THIOPHENE-3-CARBOXYLIC ACID ETHYL ESTER-->4,4'-Thiobis(6-tert-butyl-m-cresol)-->2-(4-Aminophenyl)-6-methyl-1,3-benzothiazole-7-sulfonic acid-->2-Thiopheneacetic acid-->5,6,7,8-TETRAHYDRO-3H-BENZO[4,5]THIENO[2,3-D]-PYRIMIDIN-4-ONE-->ETHYL 2-AMINO-5-PHENYLTHIOPHENE-3-CARBOXYLATE-->THIOPHENE-2-ACETAMIDE-->Isobutenyl sulfide-->ETHYL 2-AMINO-4,5,6,7-TETRAHYDROBENZO[B]THIOPHENE-3-CARBOXYLATE-->2-AMINO-5,6-DIHYDRO-4H-CYCLOPENTA[B]THIOPHENE-3-CARBOXYLIC ACID ETHYL ESTER-->Sulfur Yellow Brown 6G-->Anethole trithione-->SO^{2^} oxidation catalysts-->ammonium O,O-dimethyl thiophosphate

Hazard Information

General Description
A pale yellow crystalline solid with a faint odor of rotten eggs. Insoluble in water. A fire and explosion risk above 450° F. Transported as a yellow to red liquid. Handled at elevated temperature (typically 290°F) to prevent solidification and makes transfers easier. Hot enough that plastic or rubber may melt or lose strength. Causes thermal burns to skin on contact. Cools rapidly and solidifies if released. Equipment designed to protect against ordinary chemical exposure is ineffective against the thermal hazard. Exercise caution walking on the surface of a spill to avoid breakthrough into pockets of molten sulfur below the crust. Do not attempt to remove sulfur impregnated clothing because of the danger of tearing flesh if a burn has resulted. May be irritatin to skin, eyes and mucous membranes. Used in sulfuric acid production, petroleum refining, and pulp and paper manufacturing.
Reactivity Profile
SULFUR reacts violently with strong oxidizing agents causing fire and explosion hazards [Handling Chemicals Safely 1980 p. 871]. Reacts with iron to give pyrophoric compounds. Attacks copper, silver and mercury. Reacts with bromine trifluoride, even at 10°C [Mellor 2:113. 1946-47]. Ignites in fluorine gas at ordinary temperatures [Mellor 2:11-13 1946-47]. Reacts to incandescence with heated with thorium [Mellor 7:208 1946-47]. Can react with ammonia to form explosive sulfur nitride. Reacts with calcium phosphide incandescently at about 300°C. Reacts violently with phosphorus trioxide [Chem. Eng. News 27:2144 1949]. Mixtures with ammonium nitrate or with metal powders can be exploded by shock [Kirk and Othmer 8:644]. Combinations of finely divided sulfur with finely divided bromates, chlorates, or iodates of barium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, or zinc can explode with heat, friction, percussion, and sometimes light [Mellor 2 Supp.1:763. 1956]. A mixture with barium carbide heated to 150°C becomes incandescent. Reacts incandescently with calcium carbide or strontium carbide at 500°C. Attacks heated lithium, or heated selenium carbide with incandescence [Mellor 5:862 1946-47]. Reacts explosively if warmed with powdered zinc [Mellor 4:476. 1946-47]. Reacts vigorously with tin [Mellor 7:328. 1946-47]. A mixture with potassium nitrate and arsenic trisulfide is a known pyrotechnic formulation [Ellern 1968 p. 135]. Mixtures with any perchlorate can explode on impact [ACS 146:211-212]. A mixture of damp sulfur and calcium hypochlorite produces a brilliant crimson flash with scatter of molten sulfur [Chem. Eng. News 46(28):9 1968]. Takes fire spontaneously in chlorine dioxide and may produce an explosion [Mellor 2:289 (1946-47)]. Ignites if heated with chromic anhydride ignite and can explode, [Mellor 10:102 (1946-47)]. Even small percentages of hydrocarbons in contact with molten sulfur generate hydrogen sulfide and carbon disulfide, which may accumulate in explosive concentrations. Sulfur reacts with Group I metal nitrides to form flammable mixtures, evolving flammable and toxic NH3 and H2S gasses if water is present. (Mellor, 1940, Vol. 8, 99).
Air & Water Reactions
Flammable. Insoluble in water.
Health Hazard
Can cause eye irritation; may rarely irritate skin. If recovered sulfur, refer to hydrogen sulfide.*
Potential Exposure
Widely used in manufacture of sulfuric acid; carbon bisulfide; drugs, fungicides, gunpowder, wood pulp; rubber, and other products.
First aid
If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit.
Shipping
UN1350 Sulfur, Hazard Class: 4.1; Labels: 4.1-Flammable solid (International). NA1350 Sulfur, Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardous material (Domestic). UN2448 Sulfur, molten, Hazard Class: 4.1; Labels: 4.1-Flammable solid (International). NA 2448 Sulfur, molten Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardous material (Domestic).
Incompatibilities
Widely used in manufacture of sulfuric acid; carbon bisulfide; drugs, fungicides, gunpowder, wood pulp; rubber, and other products.
Waste Disposal
Salvage for reprocessing or dump to landfill.

Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)

msds information
Sulfur(7704-34-9).msds

Questions and Answers (Q&A)

Description
Sulfur belongs to a nonmetallic chemical element (pure product: yellow crystalline solid) under the symbol S. It can actively react with many other elements. It exists in various kinds of forms and compound such as sulfide and sulfate minerals which can be found everywhere around the universe and earth. It is also a key element for all life as the major component of amino acids, vitamins and many other cofactors. Sulfur has applications in various kinds of fields. For example, one of its biggest applications is for the production of sulfuric acid for sulfate and phosphate fertilizers. It is also used for the manufacturing of insecticides, fungicides, and bactericides. In pharmaceutical, it can be used for the manufacturing of many kinds of sulfur-containing antibiotics.
History
Sulfur was known to the alchemists from ancient times as brimstone. Lavoisier in 1772 proved sulfur to be an element. The element derived its name from both the Sanskrit and Latin names Sulvere and Sulfurium, respectively. Sulfur is widely distributed in nature, in earth's crust, ocean, meteorites, the moon, sun, and certain stars. It also is found in volcanic gases, natural gases, petroleum crudes, and hot springs. It is found in practically all plant and animal life. Most natural sulfur is in iron sulfides in the deep earth mantle. The abundance of sulfur in earth’s crust is about 350 mg/kg. Its average concentration in seawater is estimated to be about 0.09%. Sulfur occurs in earth’s crust as elemental sulfur (often found in the vicinity of volcanoes), sulfides, and sulfates. The most important sulfur-containing ores are iron pyrite, FeS2; chalcopyrite, CuFeS2; sphalerite, ZnS; galena, PbS; cinnabar HgS; gypsum CaSO4•2H2O; anhydrite CaSO4; kieserite, MgSO4•H2O; celestite, SrSO4; barite, BaSO4; and. stibnite, Sb2S3.
Uses
Elemental sulfur is used for vulcanizing rubber; making black gunpowder; as a soil conditioner; as a fungicide; preparing a number of metal sulfides; and producing carbon disulfide. It also is used in matches; bleaching wood pulp, straw, silk, and wool; and in synthesis of many dyes. Pharmaceutical grade precipitated and sublimed sulfurs are used as scabicides and as antiseptics in lotions and ointments.
Important sulfur compounds include sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen 890 SULFUR sulfide, sulfur trioxide, and a number of metal sulfides and metal oxo- salts such as sulfates, bisulfates, and sulfites. Numerous organic compounds contain sulfur, such as mercaptans, thiophenes, thiophenols, sulfate esters, sulfones, and carbon disulfide.
Production Methods
Elemental sulfur is recovered from its ore deposits found throughout the world. It is obtained commercially by the Frasch process, recovery from wells sunk into salt domes. Heated water under pressure is forced into the underground deposits to melt sulfur. Liquid sulfur is then brought to the surface. Sulfur is recovered by distillation. Often the ore is concentrated by froth flotation.
Elemental sulfur also is recovered as a by-product in processing natural gas and petroleum. Refining operations of natural gas and petroleum crude produce hydrogen sulfide, which also may occur naturally. Hydrogen sulfide is separated from hydrocarbon gases by absorption in an aqueous solution of alkaline solvent such as monoethanol amine. Hydrogen sulfide is concentrated in this solvent and gas is stripped out and oxidized by air at high temperature in the presence of a catalyst (Claus process).
Elemental sulfur also may be obtained by smelting sulfide ores with a reducing agent, such as coke or natural gas, or by reduction of sulfur dioxide.
Reactions
Sulfur forms two oxides, sulfur dioxide, SO2, and the trioxide, SO3. It burns in oxygen at about 250°C or in air above 260°C, forming sulfur dioxide. In excess oxygen the trioxide is obtained.
Sulfur reacts with hydrogen at 260 to 350°C forming hydrogen sulfide. The reaction is slow at this temperature and does not go to completion. The reaction is catalyzed by activated alumina.
Reactions with excess chlorine or fluorine yield sulfur tetrachloride, SCl4, or hexafluoride, SF6. These reactions occur under cold conditions.
Sulfur reacts with sulfur dioxide in an electric discharge to form disulfuroxide, S2O.
Sulfur reacts with aqueous sulfide to form polysulfides: S + Na2S → Na2S2
With aqueous solution of sulfite the product is thiosulfate:
S + SO32– → S2O32–
Thiosulfate also is obtained by heating sulfur with powdered sulfite:
S + Na2SO3 → Na2S2O3
When heated with alkali cyanide, thiocyanate salt is obtained:
S + KCN → KSCN
A similar reaction occurs in the aqueous phase in which thiocyanate is obtained by evaporation and crystallization.
Sulfur combines with alkali metals, copper, silver, and mercury on cold contact with the solid, forming sulfides. Reactions with magnesium, zinc, and cadmium occur to a small degree at ordinary temperatures, but rapidly on heating. Sulfur reacts with phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, and silicon at their melting points and with other elements at elevated temperatures forming binary sulfides. Sulfides of tellurium, gold, platinum, and iridium are difficult to obtain even at elevated temperatures. Sulfur does not react with inert gases, nitrogen, and iodine.
References
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulfur#Applications
http://geology.com/minerals/sulfur.shtml
http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-sulfur.htm

Spectrum Detail

Spectrum Detail
Sulfur(7704-34-9) ESR

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