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Supplier Related Products Identification Chemical Properties Safety Data Raw materials And Preparation Products Hazard Information Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS) Questions And Answer Spectrum Detail Well-known Reagent Company Product Information

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Chlorure de vinyle
Molecular Formula
MDL Number
Molecular Weight
MOL File

Chemical Properties

colourless gas
Compressed gas, easily liquefied, ethereal odor, usually handled as liquid. Phenol is added as a polymerization inhibitor. Slightly soluble in water; soluble in alcohol and ether.
Vinyl chloride is a flammable gas at room temperature, and is usually encountered as a cooled liquid. The colorless liquid forms a vapor which has a pleasant, ethereal odor. The odor threshold is variously given as 260 ppm, 3,000 ppm (NJ fact sheet), 4000 ppm (NY fact sheet) in air and 3.4 ppm in water (EPA Toxicological profile). Shipped as a liquefied compressed gas.
-153.8 °C(lit.)

-13.4 °C(lit.)

0.911 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)

refractive index 
n20/D 1.3700(lit.)

-78 °F

storage temp. 
acetone/carbon disulfide, MEK, THF: soluble


Stable, but may be light sensitive. May undergo autopolymerization. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, chemically active metals, copper. Highly flammable. Severe explosion risk at concentrations of around 3%. It is reported that "large fires of this material are practically inextinguishable".
CAS DataBase Reference
75-01-4(CAS DataBase Reference)

Safety Data

Hazard Codes 
Risk Statements 
R45:May cause cancer.
R12:Extremely Flammable.
R39/23/24/25:Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed .
R23/24/25:Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed .
R11:Highly Flammable.
Safety Statements 
S53:Avoid exposure-obtain special instruction before use .
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible) .
S36/37:Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves .
UN 1086 2.1

WGK Germany 


HS Code 
Safety Profile
Confirmed human carcinogen producing liver and blood tumors. Moderately toxic by ingestion. Experimental teratogenic data. Experimental reproductive effects. Human reproductive effects by inhalation: changes in spermato- genesis. Human mutation data reported. A severe irritant to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Causes skin burns by rapid evaporation and consequent freezing. In high concentration it acts as an anesthetic. Chronic exposure has produced liver injury. Circulatory and bone changes in the fingertips have been reported in workers handling unpolymerized materials.A very dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat, flame, or oxidzers. Large fires of ths material are practically inextinguishable. A severe explosion hazard in the form of vapor when exposed to heat or flame. Long-term exposure to air may result in formation of peroxides that can initiate explosive polymerization of the chloride. Can react vigorously with oxidizing materials. Can explode on contact with oxides of nitrogen. Obtain instructions for its use from the supplier before storing or handling ths material. To fight fire, stop flow of gas. When heated to decomposition it emits highly toxic fumes of Cl-. See also CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS, ALIPHATIC.

Raw materials And Preparation Products

Hazard Information

General Description
A colorless gas with a sweet odor. Easily ignited. Shipped as a liquefied gas under own vapor pressure. Contact with the unconfined liquid may cause frostbite by evaporative cooling. Leaks may be liquid or vapor. Vapors are heavier than air. May asphyxiate by the displacement of air. Under prolonged exposure to fire or intense heat the containers may rupture violently and rocket. Suspected carcinogen. Used to make plastics, adhesives, and other chemicals.
Reactivity Profile
VINYL CHLORIDE(75-01-4) is peroxidizable. Forms explosive polymeric peroxides in contact with air (in the presence of any of a variety of catalysts) [Bretherick 1979. p. 164]. Long storage in contact with air increases the concentration of the polyperoxides to hazardous levels [MCA Case History 1551. 1969]. The peroxides may initiate exothermic polymerization of the remaining material [Handling Chemicals Safely 1980.p. 958; Bretherick 1979. p. 160]. Light-sensitive. Many oxidizing agents apparently initiate polymerization (oxides of nitrogen, O2, etc.). May react with very hot water or steam to produce toxic fumes.
Air & Water Reactions
Highly flammable. Forms polymeric peroxides that are explosive [Bretherick 1979. p. 164].
Health Hazard
INHALATION: high concentrations cause dizziness, anesthesia, lung irritation. SKIN: may cause frostbite; phenol inhibitor may be absorbed through skin if large amounts of liquid evaporate.
Potential Exposure
Vinyl chloride is used as a vinyl monomer in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride (vinyl chloride homopolymer) and other copolymer resins. It is also used as a chemical intermediate and as a solvent.
First aid
If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit.
UN1086 Vinyl chloride, stabilized, Hazard Class: 2.1; Labels: 2.1-Flammable gas. Cylinders must be transported in a secure upright position, in a well-ventilated truck. Protect cylinder and labels from physical damage. The owner of the compressed gas cylinder is the only entity allowed by federal law (49CFR) to transport and refill them. It is a violation of transportation regulations to refill compressed gas cylinders without the express written permission of the owner.
Copper, oxidizers, aluminum, peroxides, iron, steel. Polymerizes in air, sunlight, heat, and on contact with a catalyst, strong oxidizers; and metals, such as aluminum and copper unless stabilized by inhibitors, such as phenol. Attacks iron and steel in presence of moisture.
Waste Disposal
Return refillable compressed gas cylinders to supplier. Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform to EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. Incineration, preferably after mixing with another combustible fuel. Care must be exercised to assured to assure complete combustion to prevent the formation of phosgene. An acid scrubber is necessary to remove the halo acids produced. A variety of techniques have been described for vinyl chloride recovery from PVC latexes.

Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)

Questions And Answer

Vinyl chloride is an organochloride with the chemical formula H2C=CH-Cl (Relative molecular mass: 62.5). It is a colourless gas with a mild sweet odor. It has a boiling point: -13.4 to -13.8 degree. It is slightly soluble in water (1.1 g/L at 25 degree); soluble in ethanol and highly soluble in diethyl ether, carbon tetrachloride and benzene. It is very mainly used for the manufacturing of polyvinyl chloride (PVC).

Figure 1 the chemical structure of vinyl chloride;
Vinyl chloride was first produced using the process of dehydrating ethylene dichloride (EDC) with alcoholic caustic potash. However, the first effective industrial process was based on the hydrochlorination of acetylene. Until the late 1940s, this process was used almost exclusively. However, as ethylene became more plentiful in the early 50’s, commercial processes were developed to produce vinyl chloride from chlorine and ethylene via EDC, namely, the balanced ethylene route. Today the balanced ethylene is responsible for well over 90% of the world’s vinyl chloride production.
Acetylene way
The process that produces vinyl chloride from acetylene employs the use of a catalyst. Most of the time the catalyst used is mercuric chloride deposited on active carbon. In this process the feed gases are purified, dried, and mixed at the entrance to the tubular fixed bed reactors, which are packed with mercuric chloride on active carbon pellets as catalysts. Usually, a slight excess of HCl is used over stoichiometry. “About 99% conversion of acetylene and 98% conversion of HCl are achieved. The selectivity to vinyl chloride is good – more than 98% -and the only significant side reaction is the further addition of HCl to vinyl chloride to form 1,1-dichlorethane” [1].
The major issue with this process is that fact that the catalyst used, mercuric chloride, is a very volatile compound. It is so volatile that much of the development work on this process has been devoted to this problem. Consequently, the acetylene route is currently of little commercial importance.
Ethane way
Many attempts have been made to develop a process that will use ethane to directly produce vinyl chloride. This is due to relative inexpensiveness of ethane. The major problem associated with the use of ethane is its molecular symmetry. In particular, the addition of chlorine to ethane gives rise to a wide product spectrum. “The most promising routes appear to be those based on high temperature oxychlorination that use special catalysts to achieve a worthwhile selectivity to vinyl chloride and useful major by-products such as ethylene, ethyl chloride, and EDC”[1]. The ethylene may be chlorinated to EDC and recycled along with the ethyl chloride. Although possible, this process has not progressed beyond the conceptual stage. This is due to the fact that the oxychlorination reactor design presents a severe challenge in terms of materials of construction because the reaction temperature may go up to 500oC[1]. At this temperature chlorine becomes very aggressive to most construction materials.
Ethylene way
Ethylene can be converted to vinyl chloride in a single stage, i.e., without isolating the intermediate ethylene dichloride by either chlorination or oxychlorination routes, as is the case with the balanced ethylene route. Direct chlorination routes require a high temperature and a large excess of ethylene to minimize soot formation[1]. The patent literature recommends using inert fluid beds for heat transfer and diluting gases in the feeds. Substantial amounts of vinyl chloride are formed when the oxychlorination reactor is operated above 350oC.
The common problems with the direct routes of production are poor selectivities to vinyl chloride and substantial production of chlorinated by-products, many of which have no direct commercial utility. “This has substantially hindered the industrial application of direct-conversion processes”[1].
Vinyl chloride is used primarily (> 95%) in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), which comprises about 12% of the total use of plastic worldwide[2]. The largest use of PVC is in the production of plastic piping. Other important uses are in floor coverings, consumer goods, and electrical applications and in the transport sector. About 1% of PVC is used to produce vinyl chloride/vinyl acetate copolymer. Minor uses of vinyl chloride (monomer) include the manufacture of chlorinated solvents (primarily 10000 tonnes per year of 1,1,1-trichloroethane) and the production of ethylene diamine for the manufacture of resins[2,3]. Smaller amounts of vinyl chloride are used in furniture and automobile upholstery, wall coverings, housewares, and automotive parts.[1]
Vinyl chloride has been used in the past as a refrigerant, as an extraction solvent for heat-sensitive materials, in the production of chloroacetaldehyde, as an aerosol propellant and in drugs and cosmetic products; these uses were banned in the United States of America (USA) by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1974[5].
Exposure and Toxicity
The main route of occupational exposure to vinyl chloride is by inhalation, which occurs primarily in vinyl chloride/PVC plants and in PVC-processing plants. Only few exposure measurements have been reported, but estimates from the chemical industry indicate that exposure to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) amounted to several thousands of milligrams per cubic metre in the 1940s and 1950s, and were several hundreds of milligrams per cubic metre in the 1960s and early 1970s. After its recognition as a human carcinogen[6], occupational exposure standards were set at approximately 13–26 mg/m3[5–10 ppm] in most countries in the 1970s[7-9]. In vinyl-chloride production, workers may be exposed to ethylene dichloride and to catalysts such as iron (III) chloride. In PVC production, concurrent exposure to PVC-dust may occur[10]. The general population is potentially exposed to vinyl chloride through inhalation of contaminated air, ingestion of contaminated drinking-water and foods, or dermal contact with consumer products. However, the exposure levels for the majority of the population are very low[7].
Acute and chronic effects
Acute exposure of humans to high levels of vinyl chloride via inhalation in humans can result in effects on the CNS, such as dizziness, drowsiness, headaches, and giddiness.[4,11] It is also slightly irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract in humans.[4,11] Acute exposure to extremely high levels of vinyl chloride has caused loss of consciousness, lung and kidney irritation, and inhibition of blood clotting in humans and cardiac arrhythmias in animals.[4]
Chronic effects may include liver damage and a set of symptoms termed "vinyl chloride disease," which is characterized by Raynaud's phenomenon (fingers blanch and numbness and discomfort are experienced upon exposure to the cold), changes in the bones at the end of the fingers, joint and muscle pain, and scleroderma-like skin changes (thickening of the skin, decreased elasticity, and slight edema).[4,11] Chronic effects may also include CNS effects (including dizziness, drowsiness, fatigue, headache, visual and/or hearing disturbances, memory loss, and sleep disturbances) as well as peripheral nervous system symptoms (peripheral neuropathy, tingling, numbness, weakness, and pain in fingers) have also been reported in workers exposed to vinyl chloride.[4]
Cancer risk
EPA has classified vinyl chloride as a Group a, human carcinogen.[13] Inhaled vinyl chloride has been shown to increase the risk of a rare form of liver cancer (angiosarcoma of the liver) in humans.[1,2,6] Animal studies have shown that vinyl chloride, via inhalation, increases the incidence of angiosarcoma of the liver and cancer of the liver.[4,11,12]
  1. “Vinyl Chloride Polymers” Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Engineering. 1989 ed.
  2. WHO (1999). Vinyl Chloride (Environmental Health Criteria 215). Geneva: World Health Organization
  3. European Commission (2003). Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPP C). Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Large Volume Organic Chemical Industry. Luxembourg.
  4. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological Profile for Vinyl Chloride (Update). Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA. 1997.
  5. IARC (1987). Overall evaluations of carcinogenicity: an updating of IARC Monographs volumes 1 to 42. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum Suppl, 7: 1–440. PMID: 3482203
  6. IARC (1974). Some anti-thyroid and related substances, nitrofurans and industrial chemical. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Man, 7: 1–326.
  7. NTP (2005). Vinyl Chloride Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition. Rep Carcinog, 11: 1–A32. PMID:19826456
  8. IARC (2008). 1,3-Butadiene, ethylene oxide and vinyl halides (vinyl fluoride, vinyl chloride and vinyl bromide). IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum, 97: 1–510. PMID: 20232717.
  9. Fleig I & Thiess A M (1974). Chromosome tests in vinyl chloride exposed workers] (Ger.). Arbeitsmedizin, Sozialmedizin, Praventivmedizin, 12: 280–283
  10. Casula D, Cherchi P, Spiga G, Spinazzola A (1977). Environmental dust in a plant for the production of polyvinyl chloride Ann Ist Super Sanita, 13: 189–198. PMID: 603117
  11. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Case Studies in Environmental Medicine. Vinyl Chloride Toxicity. Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA. 1990.
  12. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB, online database). National Toxicology Information Program, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD. 1993.
  13. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Health Effects Assessment Summary Tables. FY1997 Update. Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, OH. 1997.

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