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590-46-5

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Identification

Name
Betaine hydrochloride
CAS
590-46-5
Synonyms
1-CARBOXY-N,N,N-TRIMETHYLMETHANAMINIUM, CHLORIDE
2-(trimethylammonio)ethanoic acid hydroxide inner salt
ACIDOL
A-EARLEINE HYDROCHLORIDE
BETAINE CHLORIDE
BETAINE HCL
BETAINE HYDROCHLORIDE
BETAIN HYDROCHLORIDE
BET HCL
(CARBOXYMETHYL)(TRIMETHYL)AMMONIUM CHLORIDE
(CARBOXYMETHYL)TRIMETHYLAMMONIUM HYDROCHLORIDE
(CARBOXYMETHYL)TRIMETHYLAMMONIUM HYDROXIDE ANHYDRIDE HYDROCHLORIDE
glycine betaine
LYCINE HYDROCHLORIDE
Methanaminium
OXYNEURINE HYDROCHLORIDE
trimethylammonioacetate
TRIMETHYLGLYCINE HYDROCHLORIDE
TRIMETHYLGLYCOCOLL HYDROCHLORIDE
(carboxymethyl)trimethyl-ammoniuchloride
EINECS(EC#)
209-683-1
Molecular Formula
C5H12ClNO2
MDL Number
MFCD00011903
Molecular Weight
153.61
MOL File
590-46-5.mol

Chemical Properties

Description
Betaine hydrochloride is a vitamin-like substance that is a source of hydrochloric acid and aids the production of stomach acid. Some people produce deficient amounts of stomach acid, a condition that may lead to bacterial and parasitic infections of the intestines. Betaine hydrochloride is therefore recommended by some medical practitioners to sustain a healthy and normal production of stomach acid, especially to those that suffer from disorders such as allergies and asthma.
Appearance
colorless to white crystals
Melting point 
241-242 °C(lit.)

mp 
241-242 °C(lit.)

FEMA 
4223
storage temp. 
room temp
solubility 
H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless

form 
Powder or Crystals
color 
Colorless to white
PH
1 (50g/l, H2O, 20℃)
Water Solubility 
64.7 g/100 mL (25 ºC)
Merck 
14,1179
BRN 
3916181
InChIKey
HOPSCVCBEOCPJZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS DataBase Reference
590-46-5(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Betaine hydrochloride(590-46-5)
EPA Substance Registry System
590-46-5(EPA Substance)

Safety Data

Hazard Codes 
Xi,Xn
Risk Statements 
R36:Irritating to the eyes.
R36/37/38:Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin .
R20/21/22:Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed .
Safety Statements 
S26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice .
S39:Wear eye/face protection .
S24/25:Avoid contact with skin and eyes .
S36:Wear suitable protective clothing .
WGK Germany 
3

RTECS 
BP3136000


3-10
Autoignition Temperature
400 °C
TSCA 
Yes
HS Code 
29239000

Raw materials And Preparation Products

Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)

Hazard Information

Chemical Properties
colorless to white crystals
Uses
antiprotozoal, coccidiostat
Uses
Betaine hydrochloride can be used as antiarteriosclerotic, hypolipaemic, hepatoprotectant.
Uses
Betaine is used as gastric acidifier.naturopaths have long held that low stomach acid is a widespread problem that interferes with the digestion and absorption of nutrients. Betaine hydrochloride is one of the most common recommendations for this condi- tion. It helps make some minerals and other nutrients more absorbable, and may be especially helpful with nu- tritional supplements, which are often taken in tablets or capsules that may not be easily digested.
Indications
Betaine hydrochloride may be used as a lipotropic. Lipotropics aid in preventing the accumulation of fat in the liver, and usually help in the detoxification of metabolic wastes and toxins. They may be used to help with weight loss.
Betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria, a condition in which an abnormally low amount of hydrochloric acid is in the stomach. It has been used in preparations for the treatment of liver disorders, hypokalaemia (abnormally low levels of potassium in the blood), CO2 production in double contrast radiography, and high homocysteine. Betaine hydrochloride has also been used to treat tic douloreux (a condition which involves spasmodic pain along the course of a facial nerve), cystinuria (a hereditary defect that results in recurrent kidney stone formation), and vitiligo (a condition that is characterized by milky-white patches on otherwise normal skin).
Biological Functions
Betaine hydrochloride and pepsin are naturally occurring gastric-juice components that render nutrients available for absorption and biological acitivity. Specifically, Betaine hydrochloride is an acidic form of betaine, which promotes optimal gastric lumen acidity and pepsin is a protein-digesting enzyme that catalyzes the splitting of peptide bonds.
Betaine HCl is an excellent source of hydrochloric acid, also known as stomach acid. Supplementing with betaine HCl can be very beneficial, as insufficient production of hydrochloric acid is fairly widespread and often overlooked. Certain situations, such as normal aging, can decrease the body’s natural production of HCl.
General Description
Betaine?(trimethyl glycine) is an osmoprotectant, which is highly effective than proline. It is formed in from?choline. Betaine?is usually present in grains, spinach, beets,?broccoli, shellfish and marine algae.

Biochem/physiol Actions
Betaine hydrochloride can decrease hepatotoxicity, that is stimulated by ethanol.
Clinical Use
Betaine hydrochloride (pronounced beta-een) is the acid form of trimethyiglycine (TMG). It is available as an over-the-counter drug. The most common use of betaine hydrochloride is as digestive aid for people who suffer from low gastric acidity (hypochlorhydria), a common complaint in the elderly and a cause of chronic indigestion. Although such a practice is unwise. betaine hydrochloride can be of use in cases of overeating. Gourmands, in particular, suffer less discomfort after indulgences if they take betaine hydrochloride with their feasts.
Betaine hydrochloride is not only a digestive aid, but it also confers all the benefits of TMG (see next). However, betaine hydrochloride should not be used by anyone with chronic indigestion or heartburn without first seeking medical evaluation of the problem to make sure that there is not a more serious underlying condition. such as stomach ulcers. Betaine hydrochloride should be taken only with meals, and then only after first eating a few bites of food. The usual dose of betaine hydrochloride for hypochlorhydria is 500 milligrams. which is equivalent to 1.1 cubic centimeter (about a quarter teaspoon) of pharmaceutical Dilute Hydrochloric acid.
Side effects
Side effects are seldom seen, but as of 2013 betaine hydrochloride had not been through rigorous safety studies. Its safety, especially for young children, pregnant or nursing women, or those with severe liver or kidney disease, is not known.
In very high doses, betaine hydrochlorine has been associated with heartburn or burning of the stomach lining.
Drug interactions
People taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), cortisone-like drugs, or other medications that could cause peptic ulcers should not take betaine hy- drochloride.
Purification Methods
Recrystallise the salt from EtOH. Its solubility at 25o is 65% in H2O, and 5% in EtOH. [Edsall J Am Chem Soc 66 1767 1943, Kuhn & Ruelius Chem Ber 83 420 1950, Beilstein 4 III 1127, IV 2369.]
Precautions
People with a history of ulcers, heartburn, or other gastrointestinal symptoms should see a nutritionally oriented doctor before taking betaine hydrochloride, and no one should take more than 10 grains (650 mg) without a physician's recommendation. Large amounts of betaine hydrochloride can burn the lining of the stomach. If a burning sensation is experienced, betaine hydrochloride should be immediately discontinued.

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