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AKOS BBS-00004416
Hydrazine anhydrous
Catalyzed hydrazine
Hydrazine base
Rcra waste number U133
Molecular Formula
MDL Number
Molecular Weight
MOL File

Chemical Properties

colourless oily liquid
Melting point 
Boiling point 
65 °C

65 °C

1.011 g/mL at 25 °C

vapor density 
>1 (vs air)

vapor pressure 
5 mm Hg ( 25 °C)

refractive index 
n20/D 1.47(lit.)
−4 °F

storage temp. 
pK1 (25°): ~6.05
Clear colorless
Stability May be an explosion hazard, particularly if heated. Incompatible with sources of ignition, light, shock, strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, metal oxides, nitrous oxide, hydrogen peroxide, most common metals, organic materials, porous materials such as wood, paper, asbestos, soil or rust. Many types of metal may cause rapid d
explosive limit
Water Solubility 
miscible with H2O and the following alcohols: methyl, ethyl, propyl, isobutyl [MER06]
Reducing agent for many transition metals and some nonmetals (arsenic, selenium, tellurium), as well as uranium and plutonium; corrosion inhibitor in boiler feedwater and reactor cooling water; waste water treatment; electrolytic plating of metals on glas
CAS DataBase Reference
302-01-2(CAS DataBase Reference)

Hazard Information

Chemical Properties
colourless oily liquid
General Description
Colorless liquid with an ammonia-like odor. A violent poison. Causes delayed eye irritation. Very corrosive, attacks glass, rubber, and cork. Corrodes molybdenum steels such as Allegheny stainless 316.
Reactivity Profile
HYDRAZINE, AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS, WITH MORE THAN 64% HYDRAZINE(302-01-2) are strongly basic and are powerful reducing agents. Note that a 64% solution corresponds to the composition hydrazine hydrate (N2H4.H2O). Spontaneous ignition can occur with hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid. Contact with metallic oxide surfaces may lead to flaming decomposition [Haz. Chem. Data (1966)]. The reaction between 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and hydrazine hydrate shattered the reaction flask [Wischmeyer 1967]. Spontaneous ignition occurs when nitrous oxide and hydrazine are mixed [Mellor 8, Supp. 2:214(1967)]. Potassium and sodium dichromate react explosively with hydrazine [Mellor 11:234(1946-1947)]. Hydrazine hydrate reacts with stannous chloride to give stannous dihydrazinechloride, which decomposes explosively when heated [Mellor 7:430(1946-1947)]. Explodes during distillation if traces of air are present. Affected by UV and metal ion catalysis [Merck, 11th ed., 1989].
Air & Water Reactions
Fumes in air. Water soluble.
Severe explosion hazard when exposed to heat or by reaction with oxidizers. Toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin absorption; strong irritant to skin and eyes; a confirmed carcinogen.
Health Hazard
May cause toxic effects if inhaled or ingested/swallowed. Contact with substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.
Fire Hazard
Flammable/combustible material. May be ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water.
Purification Methods
Hydrazine hydrate is dried by refluxing with an equal weight of KOH pellets for 3hours, then distilled from fresh solid NaOH or BaO in a current of dry N2. Use stainless steel or copper equipment. Hydrazine and its hydrates have VERY IRRITATING and TOXIC vapours and should be used in an efficient fume cupboard. Store in a well-stoppered vessel, preferably under N2. It is a reducing agent. [Schenk in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I pp 469-472 1963.]

Safety Data

Hazard Codes 
Risk Statements 
R45:May cause cancer.
R23/24/25:Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed .
R34:Causes burns.
R43:May cause sensitization by skin contact.
R50/53:Very Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment .
R51/53:Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment .
R36/37/38:Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin .
R20/21/22:Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed .
R19:May form explosive peroxides.
R11:Highly Flammable.
Safety Statements 
S53:Avoid exposure-obtain special instruction before use .
S26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice .
S36/37:Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves .
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible) .
S61:Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions safety data sheet .
S60:This material and/or its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste .
S36/37/39:Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection .
UN 3293 6.1/PG 3

WGK Germany 


HS Code 
LD50 in mice (mg/kg): 57 i.v.; 59 orally (Witkin)

Raw materials And Preparation Products

Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)

Questions And Answer

Chemical Properties
Hydrazine is a colorless flammable liquid with strong toxicity and instability, and combines easily in the air with water molecules to form hydrazine hydrate. It is also very important for industrial uses such as rocket fuel, photographic development, and in fuel cells.
Hydrazine structure
Hydrazine is the simplest diamine in its class of compounds and may be thought of as derived from ammonia by replacement of a hydrogen atom by the – NH2 group. The hydrated hydrazine, N2H4.H2O was first prepared by Curtius in 1887. The anhydrous hydrazine as a water free base was prepared by De Bruyn for the first time. Preparation of hydrazine by the oxidation of NH3 with hypochlorite – a process that became the chief commercial method of manufacture was first demonstrated by Raschig.
Hydrazine is mostlyed used as a blowing agent in preparing polymer foams. It is mainly used as rocket fuels, boiler water treatments, chemical reactants, medicines, and in cancer research.
The industrial production of hydrazine always applies Raschin method. In October 1981, the French company Jürgen-Coleman successfully studied the imine hydrogen peroxide oxidation method, which is a promising method of production. Raschin uses ammonia and sodium hypochlorite as raw materials, followed by chlorination and amination to obtain hydrazine: ammonia and sodium hypochlorite are sent into the reactor in 1: 3 (molar ratio) with reaction generating chloramines. Chloramine can react with anhydrous ammonia to generate hydrazine in the hydrazine reactor. We can also use urea as the raw material to have it reacted with sodium hypochlorite-sodium hydroxide solution in the presence of a potassium permanganate catalyst (see hydrazine hydrate, [7803-57-8]).
The dehydrating agent method mixes caustic soda and 50% ~ 54% hydrazine hydrate (the mass ratio is 10: 8), gradually send nitrogen to remove air and heats the alkaline temperature to 118 DEG C. After the caustic soda is completely dissolved, cool to around 60℃, apply vacuum distillation to a distillate containing hydrazine content of 90% to 94%, followed by fractional distillation to remove water, condensation to obtain 98% to 99.5% of anhydrous hydrazine.
Extraction dehydration method: hydrazine hydrate solution can subject to fractionation to distill out of water to until the water and hydrazine become azeotropic (68% hydrazine); the solution is subject to secondary fractionation; add aniline to change its boiling point and distill the aniline and water off from the water; the recovered aniline can be for recycling use; the secondary fractionation solution is further subject to three times fractionation to obtain anhydrous hydrazine.

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