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Name 1,4-Dioxane
CAS 123-91-1
EINECS(EC#) 204-661-8
Molecular Formula C4H8O2
MDL Number MFCD00006571
Molecular Weight 88.11
MOL File 123-91-1.mol

Chemical Properties

1,4-dioxane is a clear liquid with ether-like odour. It is highly flammable and forms explosive peroxides in storage (rate of formation increased by heating, evaporation, or exposure to light). 1,4-Dioxane is incompatible with oxidising agents, oxygen, halogens, reducing agents, and moisture. Industrial applications of 1,4-dioxane are extensive, for instance, as solvent for cellulose acetate, ethyl cellulose, benzyl cellulose, resins, oils, waxes, and some dyes; as a solvent for paper, cotton, and textile processing; and for various organic and inorganic compounds and products. It is also used in automotive coolant liquid and in shampoos and other cosmetics as a degreasing agent and as a component of paint and varnish. Human exposures to 1,4-dioxane have been traced to multiple occupations and breathing of contaminated workplace air and drinking polluted water. Industrial uses of 1,4-dioxane are very many. For instance, it is used as solvent for celluloses, resins, lacquers, synthetic rubbers, adhesives, sealants, fats, oils, dyes, and protective coatings; as a stabiliser for chlorinated solvents and printing inks; and as a wetting and dispersing agent in textile processing agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals, in different processing of solvent-extraction processes, and in the preparation and manufacture of detergents.
Appearance colourless liquid
Melting point  12 °C
Boiling point  101 °C
density  1.034 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density  3 (vs air)
vapor pressure  27 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
refractive index  n20/D 1.422(lit.)
Fp  54 °F
storage temp.  Flammables area
solubility  Soluble in acetone, alcohol, benzene, and ether (Weast, 1986). Miscible with most organic solvents (Huntress and Mulliken, 1941) including 2-methylpropanol, toluene, cychexanone, and cyclopentanone.
form  Solution
color  APHA: ≤20
Odor Mild ether-like odor detectable at 0.8 to 172 ppm (mean = 12 ppm)
PH 6-8 (500g/l, H2O, 20℃)
Stability: Stable. Incompatible with oxidizing agents, oxygen, halogens, reducing agents, moisture. Highly flammable-note wide explosive range. May form explosive peroxides in storage (rate of formation increased by heating, evaporation or exposure to light).
explosive limit 1.7-25.2%(V)
Water Solubility  SOLUBLE
Sensitive  Hygroscopic
λmax λ: 220 nm Amax: ≤0.70
λ: 235 nm Amax: ≤0.50
λ: 250 nm Amax: ≤0.20
λ: 270 nm Amax: ≤0.10
λ: 295-400 nm Amax: ≤0.01
Merck  14,3300
BRN  102551
Henry's Law Constant 4.89(x 10-6 atm?m3/mol) (static headspace-GC, Welke et al., 1998)
Dielectric constant 2.2(25℃)
Exposure limits TLV-TWA 25 ppm (≈90 mg/m3) (ACGIH), 100 ppm (MSHA and OSHA); carcinogenicity: Animal Sufficient Evidence (IARC).
LogP -0.42 at 20℃
CAS DataBase Reference 123-91-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
IARC 2B (Vol. 11, Sup 7, 71) 1999
NIST Chemistry Reference 1,4-Dioxane(123-91-1)
Storage Precautions Store under nitrogen;Moisture sensitive
EPA Substance Registry System 123-91-1(EPA Substance)

Safety Data

Hazard Codes  Xn,F,T
Risk Statements 
R45:May cause cancer.
R11:Highly Flammable.
R36/38:Irritating to eyes and skin .
R48/23/24/25:Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed .
R65:Harmful: May cause lung damage if swallowed.
R66:Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking.
R40:Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect.
R36/37:Irritating to eyes and respiratory system .
R19:May form explosive peroxides.
R41:Risk of serious damage to eyes.
R37/38:Irritating to respiratory system and skin .
R39/23/24/25:Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed .
R23/24/25:Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed .
R48/20/22:Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed .
R38:Irritating to the skin.
R22:Harmful if swallowed.
R36/37/38:Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin .
Safety Statements 
S9:Keep container in a well-ventilated place .
S16:Keep away from sources of ignition-No smoking .
S36/37:Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves .
S46:If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label .
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible) .
S53:Avoid exposure-obtain special instruction before use .
S7:Keep container tightly closed .
S62:If swallowed, do not induce vomiting: seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label .
S26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice .
S24/25:Avoid contact with skin and eyes .
S23:Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapor/spray (appropriate wording to be specified by the manufacturer) .
RIDADR  UN 1993 3/PG 2
WGK Germany  3
RTECS  JG8225000
Autoignition Temperature 180 °C
HazardClass  3
PackingGroup  II
HS Code  29329900
Precautions Workers Should be careful during handling of 1,4-Dioxane and avoid open flames, sparks and smoking. Workers should wear proper protectives since 1,4-Dioxane in known as hazardous, cause damage to eyes, respiratory tract, liver and kidney.
Safety Profile
Confirmed carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic, neoplastigenic, tumorigenic, and teratogenicdata. Poison by intraperitoneal route. Moderately toxic by ingestion and inhalation. Mildly toxic by skin contact. Human systemic effects by inhalation: lachrymation, conjunctiva irritation, convulsions, hgh blood pressure, unspecified respiratory and gastrointestinal system effects. Mutation data reported. An eye and slun irritant. The irritant effects probably provide sufficient warning, in acute exposures, to enable a worker to leave exposure before being seriously affected. Repeated exposure to low concentrations has resulted in human fatahties, the organs chefly affected being the liver and kidneys. A very dangerous fire and explosion hazard when exposed to heat or flame; can react vigorously with oxidizing materials. Violent reaction with (H2 + Raney Ni), AgClO4. Can form dangerous peroxides when exposed to air. Potentially explosive reaction with nitric acid + perchloric acid, Raney nickel catalyst (above 210°C). Forms explosive mixtures with decaborane (impactsensitive), triethynylaluminum (sensitive to heating or drying). Violent reaction with sulfur trioxide. Incompatible with sulfur trioxide. To fight fire, use alcohol foam, CO2, dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes. See also GLYCOL ETHERS.
Hazardous Substances Data 123-91-1(Hazardous Substances Data)
LD50 in mice, rats (ml/kg): 5.7, 5.2 orally (Laug)
IDLA 500 ppm

Hazard Information

Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)

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