What is Kuromanin chloride?
Kuromanin chloride (CHRYSANTHEMIN; CYANIDIN-3-O-GLUCOSIDECHLORIDE; CYANIDIN-3-GLUCOSIDE; CYANIDIN-3-GLUCOSIDE CHLORIDE; KUROMANIN CHLORIDE; KUROMANINE CHLORIDE; ASTERIN; cyanidin-3-O-glucoside; 1- benzopyrylium,5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-(beta-d-glucopyranosyl ;C21H21ClO11), is the 3-glucoside of cyanidin belongs to the anthocyanin class of natural products that is attractive compounds with potential applications in food system given their potential health benefits and extensive range of colors . It should be mentioned that kuromanin chloride exhibits various bioactivities or pharmaceutical properties such as antioxidant activity, inhibiting mutagenesis, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, anti-aging, antibacterial properties and other health effects.
Kuromanin chloride is phytochemical rich in plants and fruits and has remarkable anti-oxidant activity, resulting in it an ideal nutrient for nutritional intervention. The antioxidant activity of kuromanin chloride was evaluated by the DPPH and ABTS assay on GES-1 cells . The results showed that kuromanin chloride possessed obvious antioxidant effects, and also could decrease the ROS level in cells and had negligible effects on the viability of cells. Bulent groups analyzed the antioxidant activity of kuromanin chloride by ferric reducing antioxidant power, indicating that kuromanin chloride was the predominant antioxidant compared with anthocyanin in all blackberry fruits . In addition, by alleviating oxidative stress, strengthening the anti-oxidative system, and chelating with Cd ion, kuromanin chloride has the ability to against Cd-induced damage in various organs such as Cd-induced dysfunction of sex hormones, Cd-induced male reproductive toxicity and spermatogenesis disturbances, and Cd-induced kidney damage .
Kuromanin chloride has shown remarkable anti-inflammation activity. On 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in mice and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Caco-2 cellular monolayer inflammation models, kuromanin chloride could significantly improve the clinical symptoms and relieve the histological damage. By protecting the intestinal barrier and suppressing inflammatory cytokine secretion, kuromanin chloride displays an anti-inflammatory effect that has great potential application in supplementary medicines for curing inflammatory bowel disease . Moreover, kuromanin chloride can reduce testis injury, improve the spermatogenesis and restrain gut microbial dysbiosis in rats induced by 3-Chloro-1,2-propanediol, further suggesting the medicinal value for healthy gut .
Kuromanin chloride have been proved that has antitumor effects. Treating PC-3 human prostate cancer cells with kuromanin chloride could induce apoptosis, activate caspase signaling pathway and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting the prominent anticarcinogenic activity of kuromanin chloride . Kuromanin chloride also has been shown to inhibit the growth and metastatic potential of melanoma via estrogen receptor beta . These studies suggested that kuromanin chloride is a potential novel therapeutic and preventive approach for tumor.
Kuromanin chloride also exhibited cytoprotective effects. For example, experiments showed that kuromanin chloride could against the glucotoxicity‑induced apoptosis of pancreatic β‑cells, indicating the antidiabetic effects of kuromanin chloride . Moreover, kuromanin chloride also has other potential therapeutic effects, such as rheumatoid arthritis, the cognitive function in older adults with subjective memory impairment, neuroprotective effects, UVA-induced human dermal fibroblast injury by upregulating autophagy, and so on. All these suggested that kuromanin chloride is the potential therapeutic medicine for multiple diseases.
In conclusion, kuromanin chloride as a class of flavonoids has been shown to display obvious pharmaceutical value that is a supplementation for prevention and/or treatment of disorders ranging from cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and cancer.
 Liang, T., Guan, R., Quan, Z., Tao, Q., Liu, Z., & Hu, Q. (2019). Cyanidin-3-o-glucoside liposome: Preparation via a green method and antioxidant activity in GES-1 cells. Food Research International, 125, 108648.
 Koca, I., & Karadeniz, B. (2009). Antioxidant properties of blackberry and blueberry fruits grown in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. Scientia Horticulturae, 121(4), 447-450.
 Li, X., Yao, Z., Yang, D., Jiang, X., Sun, J., Tian, L., ... & Bai, W. (2019). Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside Restores Spermatogenic Dysfunction in Cadmium-exposed Pubertal Mice via Histone Ubiquitination and Mitigating Oxidative Damage. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 121706.
 Gan, Y., Fu, Y., Yang, L., Chen, J., Lei, H., & Liu, Q. (2019). Cyanidin-3-O-Glucoside and Cyanidin Protect Against Intestinal Barrier Damage and 2, 4, 6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid-Induced Colitis. Journal of medicinal food.
 Chen, G., Wang, G., Zhu, C., Jiang, X., Sun, J., Tian, L., & Bai, W. (2019). Effects of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside on 3-chloro-1, 2-propanediol induced intestinal microbiota dysbiosis in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 133, 110767.
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